p. 636. Under-nutrition
- David A. Bender
Severe under-nutrition is generally associated with developing countries where food is in short supply, affecting some 162 million people world-wide, but malnutrition is also seen in about 2 per cent of the population of developed countries. ‘Under-nutrition’ highlights the three conditions classified as protein-energy malnutrition: marasmus, which affects adults and children; kwashiorkor, which affects young children; and cachexia, which is associated with advanced cancer and other chronic diseases, and involves increased metabolic rate as well as reduced food intake. Malnutrition leads to impaired immune responses, predisposing to infection, and muscle loss resulting in increased fatiguability, inability to work, and falls.