p. 162. Freud and psychoanalysis
- Tom Burns
- and Eva Burns‐Lundgren
Almost all modern psychotherapies owe their origins to Freud and psychoanalysis. ‘Freud and psychoanalysis’ shows that although psychoanalysis is no longer the dominant psychotherapy, it has influenced virtually all subsequent therapies. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), a neurologist based in Vienna, started it all. He used hypnosis for many years with his neurotic patients, but moved on to free association and dream interpretation. His psychoanalysis involved gaining an understanding of a person’s mental structures: the ego, id, super-ego, and defence mechanisms. The spread of psychoanalysis to the US, the UK, and South America was a result of the rise of Nazism in the 1930s, which forced many early analysts to leave Austria.