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1. The Frankfurt School

1. The Frankfurt School  

Stephen Eric Bronner

in Critical Theory: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780190692704
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190692674.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190692674
1. The Frankfurt School The Institute for Social Research was founded in 1923. Growing out of a Marxist study group, which sought to deal with the practical problems facing the labor movement in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, this first Marxist think tank was funded by Hermann Weil. He was an enlightened businessman, who made his fortune on the grain market in Argentina. The money was given at the urging of his son, Felix, who considered himself a “salon Bolshevik.”
9. From resignation to renewal

9. From resignation to renewal  

Stephen Eric Bronner

in Critical Theory: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780190692704
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190692674.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190692674
9. From resignation to renewal Critical theory was originally intended as an alternative to mainstream forms of both metaphysics and materialism. Its aim was to illuminate hidden sources of repression and neglected transformative possibilities. Following the outbreak of World War II, however, the Frankfurt School concluded that liberating alternatives had vanished. Critical theory awoke in Hegel’s night where all cows are black. Resistance took an increasingly existential form. It now rested on intensifying the non-identity between the individual and society. The “system” became the point of reference. Negation confronted the ontology of false conditions. Hints of utopia contested civilization. “He

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