5. DNA: identity, relationships, and databases
Nancy A. Pachana
3. The psychology of ageing
7. Shifting standards?
Counting on context
Some words are slippery. Every night, the word ‘tomorrow’ slides forward to pick out a different day of the week. ‘Here’ designates a different place depending on where you are standing. ‘I’ stands for someone different depending on who is speaking; and ‘this’ could be anything at all. Words like ‘big’ and ‘small’ are also tricky: a morbidly obese mouse is in some sense big, but in another sense still small. What about the verb ‘to know’? Is it possible that it also shifts around in some interesting way?
A Very Short Introduction
3. Are wholes just sums of parts?
reductionist view insists that the parts can ultimately explain all the workings of the whole. Emergentism , however, claims that wholes are more than sums of parts.
So many things in the world around us are complex rather than simple. A mobile phone, for instance, has many small parts that have all been assembled in a very specific way to make a complex but functioning whole. If I dissect a rat, I find that inside it are all sorts of wet and slimy parts. From what I know of biology,
6. The learning brain
‘The learning brain’ looks at the influence of personal experience on how we apply logical reasoning and how we learn to detach logic from our own experience. Schooling helps children to become ‘reflective learners’. Self-reflective learning behaviour, or meta-cognitive behaviour, refers to the ability to reflect on personal information-processing skills, to monitor personal cognitive performance, and the ability to be aware of demands from different kinds of cognitive tasks. Children also learn ‘executive function’ skills, which are processes that enable a child to gain strategic control over their own mental processes. These sorts of skills
John Monaghan and Peter Just
8. Ñañuu María Gets Hit by Lightning: People and Their Selves