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1. The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic

1. The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
1. The emergence and state of the HIV and AIDS epidemic The identification of HIV and AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which crossed from primates into humans. The first cases of the current epidemic probably occurred in the 1920s or earlier. Isolated transmissions may have happened before; but the disease did not get a foothold among humans. Rapid spread began in the 1970s.
The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction

The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction  

Paul Klenerman

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191815706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198753902.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198753902
The Immune System A Very Short Introduction
HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction

HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)  

Alan Whiteside

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198727491
A Very Short Introduction
6. Development, numbers, and politics

6. Development, numbers, and politics  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
6. Development, numbers, and politics Development and targets Box 4 The HDI and MDGs The HDI is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable, and having a decent standard of living. Its calculation, which has over time become more sophisticated, is based on:
4. HIV

4. HIV  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
4. HIV
8. Functional foods, superfoods, and supplements

8. Functional foods, superfoods, and supplements  

David A. Bender

in Nutrition: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2014
Published Online: 
Jun 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779985
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199681921.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199681921
8. Functional foods, superfoods, and supplements
Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)  

Dorothy H. Crawford

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198811718
A Very Short Introduction Second Edition
4. Emerging virus infectionsVertebrate-Transmitted Viruses

4. Emerging virus infections: Vertebrate-Transmitted Viruses  

Dorothy H. Crawford

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811718
4. Emerging virus infections Vertebrate-Transmitted Viruses Emerging infections engender fear sometimes verging on panic as an unknown microbe appears without warning, infecting and killing people, apparently indiscriminately. Although this scenario is more often the subject of horror movies than real life, the fact remains that today ‘new’ microbes are emerging with increasing frequency.
7. Persistent viruses

7. Persistent viruses  

Dorothy H. Crawford

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811718
7. Persistent viruses Viruses fight a constant battle against host immunity, and for most there is just a small window of opportunity in which to reproduce and make a hasty exit before being wiped out by the formidable array of host defences. But some viruses have evolved strategies for overcoming these immune mechanisms and survive inside their host for prolonged periods, even for a lifetime. Although the detailed mechanisms involved in these evasion strategies are very complex and varied, overall they encompass three basic manoeuvres: finding a niche in which to hide from immune attack, manipulating immune processes to benefit
1. What is the immune system?

1. What is the immune system?  

Paul Klenerman

in The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191815706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198753902.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198753902
1. What is the immune system? The immune system and immunity The concept of immunity is familiar to most of us. The idea of remaining healthy in the face of an infectious disease is a powerful one, and is akin to being exempt from some unpleasant duty or tax. The word ‘immunity’ derives from the Latin meaning ‘uncommon’ or ‘privileged’. The idea might have emerged from the observation that the average person would be susceptible to the disease, and the unusual one would be protected or immune. Although this idea of immunity is very clearly understood in the context, say,
5. Too little immunity: immunological failure

5. Too little immunity: immunological failure  

Paul Klenerman

in The Immune System: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191815706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198753902.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198753902
5. Too little immunity: immunological failure The immune system functions so well that most of the time we do not notice it is actually working at all. However, it is continuously active, preventing severe infection from the micro-organisms which colonize our skin and our gut, and suppressing the chronic virus infections most of us picked up as infants. In certain individuals, or under certain conditions, the immune response may, however, fail and this can lead to severe disease, the exact disease depending on the precise mechanism of failure. In this chapter we will examine how such failures may occur—specifically through
2. How HIV and AIDS work and scientific responses

2. How HIV and AIDS work and scientific responses  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
2. How HIV and AIDS work and scientific responses AIDS appeared when the world was growing ever more interconnected, one of the main reasons it spread so rapidly. It also came at a time of unprecedented scientific advance and optimism. The eradication of smallpox in 1977, and advances in virology and immunology, and of other medical disciplines, raised expectations of what science and medicine could deliver. This chapter explains how HIV operates and is transmitted, and how science has progressed in the challenge to discover and deliver practical treatments and prevention measures.
8. Funding the epidemic

8. Funding the epidemic  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
8. Funding the epidemic The response to HIV and AIDS has to be funded, whether the emphasis is on prevention or treatment, or both. This disease is unique in part because of the complex financing. It also requires long-term commitment for those increasing numbers on relatively expensive lifesaving treatment. There are, of course, other diseases that require long-term care too such as diabetes and hypertension. The numbers requiring ART, their relative youth at initiation, and the cost of treatment, make AIDS different.
4. The state in the bedroom

4. The state in the bedroom  

Véronique Mottier

in Sexuality: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777196
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199298020.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199298020
4. The state in the bedroom
5. Production and people

5. Production and people  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
5. Production and people Tracking the social and economic impact of AIDS is more complex than measuring demographic consequences. The epidemic does not have a long history and what we measure is what has, not what will, happen. The research may not ask the right questions or look in right places. There is tension between intensive ethnographic research at an individual level, and national survey instruments that lose this detail. Finally, unsurprisingly, people, communities, and economies have coping strategies. The presence of AIDS means adaptations occur. As a result some predictions were simply wrong; for example the erroneous forecast of
4. Single market, single currency

4. Single market, single currency  

Simon Usherwood and John Pinder

in The European Union: A Very Short Introduction (4th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2018
Published Online: 
Jan 2018
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198808855.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
4. Single market, single currency While peace among the member states remained at the heart of the Community’s purpose, from the second half of the 1950s a large common market became the focus for its action. The strength of the US economy was a striking example of the success of such a market; the Germans and the Dutch wanted liberal trade; and the French accepted the common market in industrial goods provided it was accompanied by the agricultural common market that would favour their own exports.
3. What shapes epidemics?

3. What shapes epidemics?  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
3. What shapes epidemics? Disease, including AIDS, is a sickness of the body. AIDS is the presenting symptom. The manifestations of AIDS, illness, and death reveal the fractures, stresses, and strains in a society. While at the most proximate level, the chance of HIV transmission depends on biological determinants, there are other factors that need to be considered, in particular social and economic poverty and inequality.
7. Treatment and prevention dilemmas

7. Treatment and prevention dilemmas  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
7. Treatment and prevention dilemmas The public health context The best way to achieve a healthy society is to ensure people don’t fall ill or have accidents. Successful prevention and public health programmes are the paramount and the most cost effective way to health. Persuading people to never smoke means rates of lung cancer will plummet; wearing seatbelts reduces the risk of injury in motor accidents. There will, of course, still be disease, natural disaster, and accidents, when medical interventions remain essential.
9. Big issues and major challenges

9. Big issues and major challenges  

Alan Whiteside

in HIV & AIDS: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198727491.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198727491
9. Big issues and major challenges If a third edition of this Very Short Introduction to HIV and AIDS were produced in 2022, it would be a different book to this one. By then, unless something dramatic happens (e.g. an unforeseen mutation of the virus into a more virulent variety), the epidemic will be under control across the world. The number of new infections will continue to fall; there will be virtually no vertical transmission from mothers to infants; and for those who have the misfortune to be infected, treatment will be monthly pills or implants, increasingly effective and simple,
7. HIV/AIDS

7. HIV/AIDS  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
7. HIV/AIDS The arrival of HIV/AIDS was the end of the age of hubris. Any bluster about the death of infectious disease by the hand of biomedicine or hope of living in a world free of pestilence disappeared as it became clear that HIV/AIDS was a new infectious disease thriving in a world thought to be on the verge of being free of such menaces.

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