7. Time, Death, and Conscience
8. Temporality, Transcendence, and Freedom
2. Astronomy in antiquity
The ‘Introduction’ explains that the beginning of philosophy in the Islamic world is seen as lying with a translation movement that began more than 200 years after the age of the Prophet Muḥammad. From the end of the 8th century until the beginning of the 10th century, many works of Greek science and philosophy were rendered into Arabic. The most famous philosophers of the Islamic world—al-Kindī, al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides—responded directly to these translations, and especially to the Arabic versions of Aristotle. The tradition they represent was called falsafa. Other traditions that are considered alongside falsafa are
Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum
7. Pluralism: is causation many different things?