7. Time, Death, and Conscience
8. Temporality, Transcendence, and Freedom
2. Astronomy in antiquity
1. Pain concepts
Scour the shelves of a specialist library on the history of medicine, looking for pain. It will strike you, as it struck me in the Osler Library in Montreal, that there are many more books on the history of anaesthesia than there are on the history of pain. Triumphs and conquests of pain abound in the modern celebration of medical science’s ability to benumb. Yet there’s something uncanny about this celebration, for the starting point for many of these works on anaesthesia is the claim that, until the mid-19th century, pain was central to the experience of
The ‘Introduction’ explains that the beginning of philosophy in the Islamic world is seen as lying with a translation movement that began more than 200 years after the age of the Prophet Muḥammad. From the end of the 8th century until the beginning of the 10th century, many works of Greek science and philosophy were rendered into Arabic. The most famous philosophers of the Islamic world—al-Kindī, al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides—responded directly to these translations, and especially to the Arabic versions of Aristotle. The tradition they represent was called falsafa. Other traditions that are considered alongside falsafa are
Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum
7. Pluralism: is causation many different things?