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9. Is nothing something?

9. Is nothing something?  

Stephen Mumford

in Metaphysics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778308
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199657124.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199657124
9. Is nothing something? We have been considering what there is and what it is. It made sense to start with the easy things. It seemed clear that there were particulars and properties, that changes occurred and some of them could be caused. There were wholes as well as parts, and there were persons. Some other topics were less easy. It is disputed whether wholes are sometimes more than their parts, what possibilities are, whether spiritual substances exist, and whether time is a thing that passes.
4. Is time real?

4. Is time real?  

Jan Westerhoff

in Reality: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778063
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199594412.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199594412
4. Is time real? In a range of hills to the east of the River Rhine lie the ruins of a Cistercian monastery, Heisterbach Abbey. Local legends relate the story of a monk from the 15th century who wandered from the monastery into the surrounding woods, contemplating Psalm 90:4 (‘For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night’). Sitting down in the forest, the monk fell asleep and awoke only when the monastery's bell called for the evening prayer. As he returned, the monastery appeared strangely changed
1. Life and character

1. Life and character  

A. C. Grayling

in Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776656
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854117.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854117
1. Life and character
2. The early philosophy

2. The early philosophy  

A. C. Grayling

in Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776656
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854117.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854117
2. The early philosophy
4. Wittgenstein and recent philosophy

4. Wittgenstein and recent philosophy  

A. C. Grayling

in Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776656
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854117.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854117
4. Wittgenstein and recent philosophy
8. Some frequently asked questions

8. Some frequently asked questions  

Timothy Gowers

in Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776397
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853615.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853615
8. Some frequently asked questions
4. Descriptions and existence: did the Greeks worship Zeus?

4. Descriptions and existence: did the Greeks worship Zeus?  

Graham Priest

in Logic: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780191848513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811701.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811701
4. Descriptions and existence: did the Greeks worship Zeus? definite descriptions , or sometimes just descriptions —though be warned that this is a technical term. Descriptions are phrases like ‘the man who first landed on the Moon’ and ‘the only man-made object on the Earth that is visible from space’. In general, descriptions have the form: the thing satisfying such and such a condition . Following the English philosopher/mathematician, Bertrand Russell ( ), one of the founders of modern logic, we can write them as follows. Rewrite ‘the man who first landed on the Moon’ as ‘the object,
5. Self-reference: what is this chapter about?

5. Self-reference: what is this chapter about?  

Graham Priest

in Logic: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780191848513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811701.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811701
5. Self-reference: what is this chapter about? that things are not as straightforward as one might have supposed, once one takes into account the fact that some names may not refer to anything. Further complexities arise when we consider another kind of unusual case: self-reference.
5. Genius and madness

5. Genius and madness  

Andrew Robinson

in Genius: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778056
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199594405.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199594405
5. Genius and madness
3. Historical views of infinity

3. Historical views of infinity  

Ian Stewart

in Infinity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191816574
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198755234.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198755234
3. Historical views of infinity
Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short introduction

Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short introduction  

Michael Beaney

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191823442
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198778028.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198778028
A Very Short Introduction
Introduction

Introduction  

Michael Beaney

in Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191823442
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198778028.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198778028
Introduction Many professional philosophers working today would describe themselves as ‘analytic philosophers’. Certainly, this is true of many philosophers teaching in colleges and universities in the English-speaking world. But analytic philosophy has been growing rapidly elsewhere: one sign of this is the establishment over the last twenty years or so of societies for analytic philosophy right across the world, from East Asia to Latin America. This is not to say that there is agreement on what ‘analytic philosophy’ means or what its main concerns, methods, and successes are. But I hope that this book will give you some idea of
Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction

Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction  

A. C. Grayling

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776656
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854117.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192854117
A Very Short Introduction
7. Multilingualism

7. Multilingualism  

John Edwards

in Sociolinguistics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365920
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199858613.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199858613
7. Multilingualism
1. What is artificial intelligence?

1. What is artificial intelligence?  

Margaret A. Boden

in Artificial Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2018
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780191821448
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199602919.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199602919
1. What is artificial intelligence?
Identity: A Very Short Introduction

Identity: A Very Short Introduction  

Florian Coulmas

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2019
Published Online: 
Feb 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867033
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198828549.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198828549
Identity A Very Short Introduction
Conclusion: The Identity of Identity

Conclusion: The Identity of Identity  

Florian Coulmas

in Identity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2019
Published Online: 
Feb 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867033
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198828549.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198828549
Conclusion: The Identity of Identity What can be more identical than identity? ‘Identity’, the word, suggests immutability, self-sameness, permanency; while in fact it does what other words also do, it changes its meaning—in our day and age, so rapidly that it is hard to keep track. Seven-year-old Shibuya Mirai caused a stir when, in November 2017, he received his official identity document, complete with photograph and date of birth, sealed and signed by Mayor Ken Hasebe of Shibuya ward in Tokyo. Shibuya Mirai is an artificial intelligence (AI) bot (his names means ‘Shibuya’s future’). At around the same time and
2. Identity in logic and the classical law of thought

2. Identity in logic and the classical law of thought  

Florian Coulmas

in Identity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2019
Published Online: 
Feb 2019
eISBN: 
9780191867033
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198828549.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198828549
2. Identity in logic and the classical law of thought Indiscernibles In his book Word and Object (§24), Willard Van Orman Quine, an influential philosopher of the 20th century, remarked that although the notion of identity is so simple, confusion over it is quite common. The confusion begins with the equals sign ‘=’, which is the most common symbol used in basic arithmetic and logic to express identity: (1) x 1 = x 2 , which means x 1 is the same thing as x 2 . Elementary school pupils are from first grade familiarized with
2. How can we speak of what does not exist?

2. How can we speak of what does not exist?  

Michael Beaney

in Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191823442
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198778028.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198778028
2. How can we speak of what does not exist? ), you understand that I am asserting that the object that is me falls under the concept “philosopher”. Moreover, you know that my claim is true if I am indeed a philosopher—if I do indeed fall under the concept “philosopher”.
4. Are there limits to what we can say or think?

4. Are there limits to what we can say or think?  

Michael Beaney

in Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191823442
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198778028.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198778028
4. Are there limits to what we can say or think? can say or think those things. The point is that you can’t if you want something: to keep your job, to gain funding, to do a good presentation, or to win a match. The limits to what we can say or think in such cases, then, are determined by our aims and interests.

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