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1. Reading Iran

1. Reading Iran  

Ali M. Ansari

in Iran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781315
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199669349.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199669349
1. Reading Iran In 2006 Warner Brothers released the film version of Frank Miller’s highly stylized graphic novel of the Spartan defence at Thermopylae, titled the ‘300’. Like all good storytellers Miller was less interested in factual accuracy than with the message he sought to convey, and there was little room for nuance. The protagonists were clear, though there was an added twist to the standard tale of freeborn Spartans heroically defending the ‘Western’ civilization against the Persian hordes determined to enslave it. In this case it was not sufficient for the Persians to be despotic and ‘un-free’, they also
4. Spiritual exercise and the path of the bodhisattva

4. Spiritual exercise and the path of the bodhisattva  

Matthew T. Kapstein

in Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780199375226
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199735129.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199735129
4. Spiritual exercise and the path of the bodhisattva
5. From darkness to light

5. From darkness to light  

Andreas Önnerfors

in Freemasonry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191837364
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198796275.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198796275
5. From darkness to light Live performance of ritual constitutes the centrepiece of activities in freemasonry and is one of the defining features that distinguish it from the majority of other associations. The rituals of freemasonry developed during the 18th and 19th centuries and have since remained unchanged in their general design. Masonic rituals take place inside (and partly outside) the lodge according to a more or less predefined script (the ritual text) as a dramatizing performance in ritual and real time—much like a musical score and a concert, or a play and its performance. Rituals fulfil three major functions:
2. Sources of Tibetan religious traditions

2. Sources of Tibetan religious traditions  

Matthew T. Kapstein

in Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780199375226
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199735129.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199735129
2. Sources of Tibetan religious traditions
6. Enlightenment in this very body

6. Enlightenment in this very body  

Matthew T. Kapstein

in Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780199375226
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199735129.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199735129
6. Enlightenment in this very body
5. Enlightened illusions

5. Enlightened illusions  

Stephen Eric Bronner

in Critical Theory: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780190692704
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190692674.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190692674
5. Enlightened illusions Dialectic of Enlightenment was perhaps the first great critical encounter with modernity undertaken from the Left. It first appeared in a private printing for the Institute with the title Philosophical Fragments in 1944. When it was finally published with Querido Verlag in 1947, however, the original title had been turned into the subtitle. The focus had become more precise. Initially that didn’t help matters: it sold only about two thousand copies. Today, however, Dialectic of Enlightenment is recognized as a landmark of modern philosophy and, arguably, the signature work of critical theory.
1. History of humanism

1. History of humanism  

Stephen Law

in Humanism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777363
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199553648.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199553648
1. History of humanism
1. Two approaches to freemasonry

1. Two approaches to freemasonry  

Andreas Önnerfors

in Freemasonry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191837364
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198796275.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198796275
1. Two approaches to freemasonry This book examines how and why, since its inception in Britain, men (and women) have organized themselves socially and voluntarily within freemasonry over the course of three centuries, despite very divergent cultural and political settings worldwide. There is no single definition or form of freemasonry, which is why contemporary scholars prefer to speak of ‘freemasonries’. Indeed, the brotherhood and its history are surrounded by an abundance of facts and fictions and sources, which this book aims to clarify, enabling the reader to navigate this complex subject matter. The common view of freemasonry tends to fall
4. Enlightenment foundations

4. Enlightenment foundations  

Andreas Önnerfors

in Freemasonry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191837364
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198796275.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198796275
4. Enlightenment foundations When freemasonry entered the 18th century, a new layer of ideas was added: the brotherhood associated itself and was associated with science in general and with the new culture of Newtonian experimental science in particular. For the first time, masonic ideas were being published. During this first phase of its modern existence, there was considerable overlap between scientific culture and freemasonry. Lodges were perceived as something akin to academies, or at least they acted as such in countries that were without scientific societies. The scientific image of freemasonry gave it a central place in the Enlightenment ideas
6. Organizational culture

6. Organizational culture  

Andreas Önnerfors

in Freemasonry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191837364
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198796275.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198796275
6. Organizational culture The global success of freemasonry as a voluntary association lies in its well-organized internal structure. By 1723, the masonic foundational rules for organization had already been outlined and codified, and would last for centuries to come. Within a few decades, freemasonry had developed solid structures, from the local lodge to the regional/provincial level to the grand lodge at the national level, which in turn regulated relationships with grand lodges in other territories/countries.

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