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5. Atheism in history

5. Atheism in history  

Julian Baggini

in Atheism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775925
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804242.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804242
5. Atheism in history
3. Bettering the human condition

3. Bettering the human condition  

John Robertson

in The Enlightenment: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782411
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199591787.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199591787
3. Bettering the human condition Abstract The Wealth of Nations (1776). Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), Adam Smith (1723–90) posed the question: ‘What are the advantages which we propose by that great purpose of human life which we call bettering our condition?’
3. Beyond the pale: scientific racism, the nation, and the politics of colour

3. Beyond the pale: scientific racism, the nation, and the politics of colour  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
3. Beyond the pale: scientific racism, the nation, and the politics of colour Abstract The year that marks the birth of Western modernity is 1492 when Columbus set off for his momentous journey. It was the beginning of conquest and pillage of those beyond the ‘civilized’, Christian world. ‘Beyond the pale: scientific racism, the nation, and the politics of colour’ examines the impact of how Columbus viewed the people he met on his voyage to the subsequent development of a justification for a type of racism. The word race didn't enter the English language until the 16th century. In the
7. Brotherhood challenged

7. Brotherhood challenged  

Andreas Önnerfors

in Freemasonry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191837364
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198796275.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198796275
7. Brotherhood challenged From its outset, freemasonry was and still is perceived as a distinctly male form of sociability. However, criticism of its exclusion of women began early on and led to the establishment of female or mixed para-masonic orders and eventually to entirely female offshoots of mainstream freemasonry.
Conclusion: The politics of resistance

Conclusion: The politics of resistance  

Siva Vaidhyanathan

in Intellectual Property: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780190231385
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780195372779.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195372779
Conclusion: The politics of resistance
3. Education

3. Education  

Rab Houston

in Scotland: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777059
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199230792.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199230792
3. Education Abstract c. 1800. Schools Sixteenth-century Protestant manifestos had as much to say about education as about dogma and Scotland has long been perceived as a country that values teaching and learning. The Reformation did not initiate schooling. There were already plenty of prestigious and long-established burgh grammar schools: for example, at Glasgow (1124) and Dundee (1239). Laws providing for schools and schoolmasters to be funded by landowners or ‘heritors’ in all rural parishes were passed in 1617, 1633, and 1696, but (like most early legislation) they initially expressed aspiration rather than announced achievement. Universities Prior to c.
5. Enlightened illusions

5. Enlightened illusions  

Stephen Eric Bronner

in Critical Theory: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780190692704
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190692674.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190692674
5. Enlightened illusions Dialectic of Enlightenment was perhaps the first great critical encounter with modernity undertaken from the Left. It first appeared in a private printing for the Institute with the title Philosophical Fragments in 1944. When it was finally published with Querido Verlag in 1947, however, the original title had been turned into the subtitle. The focus had become more precise. Initially that didn’t help matters: it sold only about two thousand copies. Today, however, Dialectic of Enlightenment is recognized as a landmark of modern philosophy and, arguably, the signature work of critical theory.
4. Enlightening the public

4. Enlightening the public  

John Robertson

in The Enlightenment: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782411
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199591787.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199591787
4. Enlightening the public Abstract ‘Enlightening the public’ outlines what historians have revealed of the context in which Enlightenment ideas were formed and received and argues that what distinguished the Enlightenment was the agency of philosophers and men of letters in relation to their ‘public’. What they sought was a new role for themselves as formers of ‘public opinion’, understood as an instrument by which they could guide, but also effectively limit, what governments could hope to achieve. It concludes by returning to the classic question of the relation between Enlightenment and revolution, to argue that we should see the
The EnlightenmentA Very Short Introduction

The Enlightenment: A Very Short Introduction  

John Robertson

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191782411
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199591787.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199591787
A Very Short Introduction
7. Enlightenment and law

7. Enlightenment and law  

Roger Scruton

in Kant: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775482
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192801999.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192801999
7. Enlightenment and law Abstract The critical philosophy is a metaphilosophy, a philosophy about philosophy. Kant believed that in the practical sphere the critical method made direct contact with moral judgement and brought forth conclusions that must be accepted, even if people have an interest in denying them. ‘Englightenment and law’ addresses the philosophical questions which involved politics that Kant turned to in his last years. He was hoping that by the use of the critical method he could help settle some of the vexing question of legitimacy and right. Morality is the core of practical reason but it is

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