1. Islam, Muslims, and Islamism
2. Types and traditions
Spiritualities, including those associated with the world religions, take a variety of different forms. These forms are expressed in wisdom teachings, spiritual practices, and approaches to everyday life as well as in distinctive theories of spiritual growth and transformation.
3. An argument against the existence of God
The formation of the Koran
The collection of the Koran
2. Fear of the dark?: blacks, Jews, and barbarians
By the time Marr penned his diatribe against the Jews in the 1870s, most of the elements of the modern concept of race were already in place. The idea that human biological characteristics such as skin colour, shape of nose, type of hair, and size of skull were associated with ingrained cultural and behavioural traits was well established. It was widely held that level of ability to use reason, capacity for ‘civilization’ and the arts, and tendencies towards sexual lasciviousness, for example, could all be read off from a study of
Ali M. Ansari
3. Iran and Islam
was Iranian identity, to the extent that some speculated that Iranian-ness (or perhaps more accurately, Persian-ness) was an entirely Western construct imposed upon a quintessentially Muslim nation.
Scott H. Hendrix
6. The political reformation
4. Looking Ahead
Let’s consider some very recent forces of change. We can think of them as three risings: the rise of religious diversity in America, the rise of the information society, and the rise of consumer culture.
1. Kabbalah: The Term and Its Meanings
1. The formation of Augustine's mind: Cicero, Mani, Plato, Christ
David F. Ford
4. Living before God: worship and ethics