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3. Giant planets

3. Giant planets  

David A. Rothery

in Planets: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777622
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199573509.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199573509
3. Giant planets
5. Tectonics and climate

5. Tectonics and climate  

Mark Maslin

in Climate: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778254
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199641130.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199641130
5. Tectonics and climate
7. Evolution and extinction

7. Evolution and extinction  

Dorrik Stow

in Oceans: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191782428
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199655076.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199655076
7. Evolution and extinction Life is inextricably bound with the oceans, from its first origins to its blossoming into the rich variety we know today. The passage of life through the different eras of ocean history is marked by evolutionary divergence and episodes of mass extinction, when up to 80 per cent of the planet’s species were wiped out. Evolution has been painstakingly slow—from single-celled to multi-celled organisms, from asexual replication to sexual reproduction with associated mutations, and from soft-bodied creatures for which we have sparse fossil evidence to protective hard parts that are a thousand times easier to preserve.
1. What is special about Earth’s atmosphere?

1. What is special about Earth’s atmosphere?  

Paul I. Palmer

in The Atmosphere: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191788970
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198722038.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198722038
1. What is special about Earth’s atmosphere? Which of us haven’t occasionally been entranced by the perpetual movement of clouds or the majesty of lightning? Who hasn’t wondered why the sky is blue in the daytime, dark at night, and sometimes an explosion of colour at sunset? Or why most of Earth’s rainforests are located near the equator while most major deserts are located at thirty degrees north and south? But how many of us have pondered why Earth’s atmosphere is the way it is, what makes it special, and appreciated its many chemical and physical properties that we rely
2. Atmosphere and oceans

2. Atmosphere and oceans  

Mark Maslin

in Climate: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778254
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199641130.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199641130
2. Atmosphere and oceans
1. The atmosphere

1. The atmosphere  

Storm Dunlop

in Weather: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191783357
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199571314.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199571314
1. The atmosphere Box 1 Temperatures and differences in temperature To prevent confusion, meteorologists show actual temperatures by the use of the degree symbol (e.g. 20 °C) and differences in temperature by the abbreviation ‘deg.’ (e.g. 5 deg. C). Note that temperatures are also sometimes expressed in kelvins, named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), the physicist, who first identified the need for an absolute thermometric scale. The scale is measured from absolute zero, at which all molecular motion ceases (–273.16 °C). A kelvin is a unit of heat, so temperatures given on the Kelvin scale (such as
4. Atmospheric composition

4. Atmospheric composition  

Paul I. Palmer

in The Atmosphere: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191788970
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198722038.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198722038
4. Atmospheric composition Nitrogen, oxygen, and argon collectively represent more than 99.9 per cent of the air we breathe. The gases relevant to climate and human health that sometimes dominate the headlines are all described in that remaining 0.1 per cent of air. But Earth’s atmosphere hasn’t always had that composition—it is on at least its third distinctive atmosphere.
8. Scratching the surface with cosmogenic isotopes

8. Scratching the surface with cosmogenic isotopes  

Rob Ellam

in Isotopes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2016
Published Online: 
May 2016
eISBN: 
9780191790737
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198723622.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198723622
8. Scratching the surface with cosmogenic isotopes Cosmogenic ray interactions 14 C is produced in the Earth’s atmosphere by the interaction between nitrogen and cosmic ray neutrons that releases a free proton turning 14 7 N into 14 6 C in a process that we call an ‘n-p’ reaction, which can be characterized, using the shorthand of nuclear reactions, as: 14 N n , p 14 C . 14 C a ‘cosmogenic’ isotope. The half-life of 14 C is about 5,000 years, so we know that all the 14 C on Earth is either cosmogenic or
2. The circulation of the atmosphere

2. The circulation of the atmosphere  

Storm Dunlop

in Weather: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191783357
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199571314.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199571314
2. The circulation of the atmosphere 7. Edmond Halley’s 1686 map of the winds in the tropics.
4. Water in the atmosphere

4. Water in the atmosphere  

Storm Dunlop

in Weather: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191783357
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199571314.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199571314
4. Water in the atmosphere Box 4 Air doesn’t ‘hold’ water 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) molecules are present. For every molecule of water vapour (H 2 O) that is introduced in any given volume, one molecule of either nitrogen or oxygen is forced to leave. This leads to the initially apparently paradoxical situation, which many people have difficulty in believing, that humid air weighs less than dry air.
Telescopes: A Very Short Introduction

Telescopes: A Very Short Introduction  

Geoff Cottrell

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191808234
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198745860.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198745860
A Very Short Introduction
The Atmosphere: A Very Short Introduction

The Atmosphere: A Very Short Introduction  

Paul I. Palmer

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191788970
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198722038.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198722038
A Very Short Introduction
6. Our future atmosphere

6. Our future atmosphere  

Paul I. Palmer

in The Atmosphere: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191788970
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198722038.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198722038
6. Our future atmosphere There is still much about Earth’s atmosphere we do not fully understand, which limits our ability to predict large-scale changes to the atmosphere. As Earth’s climate changes new scientific challenges will emerge that need to be addressed with new measurements and models. These challenges have implications for assessing the impact of future global economic growth and mitigating humanitarian risks. Here, I outline (some) future challenges we face.
1. Dynamic planet

1. Dynamic planet  

Martin Redfern

in The Earth: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775734
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803078.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803078
1. Dynamic planet
4. Chemical broth

4. Chemical broth  

Dorrik Stow

in Oceans: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191782428
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199655076.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199655076
4. Chemical broth The Earth is a single unity linked everywhere by oceans and seas. The remarkable properties of the simple water molecule have not only coloured the planet blue when viewed from outer space, but also allowed Earth to retain its hydrosphere and all its cycles, the seas to develop their saltiness and hierarchy of tiers, and life to develop and flourish. Water is a super-solvent, absorbing gases from the atmosphere and extracting salts from the land. About 3 billion tonnes of dissolved chemicals are delivered by rivers to the oceans each year, yet their concentration in seawater has
6. Ocean–climate nexus

6. Ocean–climate nexus  

Dorrik Stow

in Oceans: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191782428
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199655076.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199655076
6. Ocean–climate nexus The oceans and atmosphere are intricately coupled. Together they control and express both the daily drama of Earth’s weather systems and the long-term changes in planetary climate. Winds drive the currents that redistribute heat across the face of the globe—a transfer of energy that is staggering in its enormity, and essential to the maintenance of a habitable world. But the climate is no more constant than its ocean regulator is simple. The natural state for Earth during most of its history has been one of warm (greenhouse) conditions. These have been sporadically interrupted by cold (icehouse) conditions
Weather: A Very Short Introduction

Weather: A Very Short Introduction  

Storm Dunlop

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191783357
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199571314.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199571314
A Very Short Introduction
Climate: A Very Short Introduction

Climate: A Very Short Introduction  

Mark Maslin

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778254
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199641130.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199641130
A Very Short Introduction

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