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6. Disorders of dreaming

6. Disorders of dreaming  

J. Allan Hobson

in Dreaming: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775499
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802156.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802156
6. Disorders of dreaming In this chapter, we look at the way in which the brain systems mediating dreaming can become exaggerated or distorted, with unwelcome consequences. Here, we are on the edge of the medicine of sleep disorders, a topic of great interest to modern sleep science.
8. The new neuropsychology of dreaming

8. The new neuropsychology of dreaming  

J. Allan Hobson

in Dreaming: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775499
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802156.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802156
8. The new neuropsychology of dreaming Sleep lab dream research very quickly reached a point of diminishing returns. This was because the one-to-one dream content theory was too ambitious and too unscientific to guide a physiological programme that was too superficial to provide detailed data about the brain. The result was a contentious and unproductive period of sleep and dream research lasting from about 1975 to 1995. Understandably disappointed, the grant committees of the American National Institutes of Health began to cut funding for sleep labs, especially those that were engaged in descriptive, correlative work on dreaming.
4. Autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder

4. Autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder  

Uta Frith

in Autism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776922
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199207565.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199207565
4. Autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder
1. The autism spectrum

1. The autism spectrum  

Uta Frith

in Autism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776922
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199207565.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199207565
1. The autism spectrum
1. Sleep through the ages

1. Sleep through the ages  

Steven W. Lockley and Russell G. Foster

in Sleep: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777912
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199587858.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199587858
1. Sleep through the ages
8. Epilogue

8. Epilogue  

Michael O’Shea

in The Brain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776496
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853929.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853929
8. Epilogue
1. What is dreaming?

1. What is dreaming?  

J. Allan Hobson

in Dreaming: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775499
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802156.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802156
1. What causes dreaming? Why are dreams so strange? Why are they so hard to remember? A true science of dreaming requires a reliable definition that can lead to the reliable identification of this state and methods of measuring its properties. During the course of work on the brain, which led to the suspicion that it might be brain activation in sleep that causes dreaming, we realized that the most scientifically useful way to define and measure dreaming was to focus on the formal features rather than the content – by this is meant the perceptual (how we perceive), cognitive
10. Dream consciousness

10. Dream consciousness  

J. Allan Hobson

in Dreaming: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775499
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802156.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802156
10. Dream consciousness In his approach to dream interpretation, Freud’s emphasis was on the unconscious mind, where that mental agency was viewed as a constantly threatening, barely restrained collection of socially and psychologically unacceptable desires. In turning this idea on its head, and viewing the unconscious mainly as an ally, and a guide to survival and socially sensible reproduction, we are redefining the unconscious in a way that demands a new view of consciousness in general and of dream consciousness in particular. This chapter is designed to describe how modern sleep science has contributed to the dramatic progress of the
2. Why did the analysis of dream content fail to become a science?

2. Why did the analysis of dream content fail to become a science?  

J. Allan Hobson

in Dreaming: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775499
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802156.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802156
2. Why did the analysis of dream content fail to become a science? , most dream theorists preferred to focus on content. Impressed with the apparent unintelligibility of dreams, these theorists assumed that there was a rebus, or transformational set of rules (algorithm), which presented the deeper meanings of the dream in disguised symbolic, metaphorical, and sensory terms. Interpretation has always been the main goal of content analysis, whether for medical diagnosis (in the hands of the early Greeks), fortune telling (in the work of Artemidorus), religious prophecy (in the Bible), or psychological divinations (in the proto-scientific schema of Sigmund
9. Dreaming, learning, and memory

9. Dreaming, learning, and memory  

J. Allan Hobson

in Dreaming: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775499
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802156.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802156
9. Dreaming, learning, and memory The idea that dreaming is involved in the reorganization of memory has been around for at least 30 years, but only within the last five has a strong, clear line of evidence been developed. One of the most important scientists working in this area is my colleague Robert Stickgold, and it is his work that forms the backbone of this chapter.
5. Science

5. Science  

Ronald de Sousa

in Love: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2015
Published Online: 
Jan 2015
eISBN: 
9780191781353
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199663842.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199663842
5. Science The kiss … is held in high sexual esteem among many nations in spite of the fact that the parts of the body involved do not form part of the sexual apparatus but constitute the entrance to the digestive tract. Poetry, art, music, and literature attempt to convey—or at least to evoke, for those who can recognize it—the thrill and the anguish of love. They do it with extravagant metaphors: ‘I’ve got you under my skin’, ‘You are part of me’, ‘We two are one’, ‘My heart lives in thy breast, as thine in me’. The scientist looks
2. The human brain

2. The human brain  

Susan Blackmore

in Consciousness: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780191836206
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198794738.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198794738
2. The human brain A big brain neurons (i.e. nerve cells) connected by trillions of synapses, as well as billions of supporting glial cells and blood vessels. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system, the spinal cord being connected to the brain stem and then midbrain which is responsible, among other things, for controlling the sleep–wake cycle. Behind this lies the cerebellum , or ‘little brain’, mostly concerned with fine movement control, and above it is the latest part of the brain to evolve, the cerebral cortex (i.e. the outer layer
2. From humours to cells: components of mind

2. From humours to cells: components of mind  

Michael O’Shea

in The Brain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776496
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853929.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853929
2. From humours to cells: components of mind The widespread occurrence of the ‘surgical’ technique of trepanation, the removal of parts of skull to expose the brain, in early civilizations suggests that ancient cultures recognized the brain as a critical organ. This is not to suggest that a link between the brain and the mind has its roots in prehistory. In fact the long history of neuroscience prior to the scientific period suggests that it is not at all self-evident that mental functions must necessarily be attributed to the brain. The Egyptians for instance clearly did not hold the brain
4. From the Big Bang to the big brain

4. From the Big Bang to the big brain  

Michael O’Shea

in The Brain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776496
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853929.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853929
4. From the Big Bang to the big brain Early evolution of the nervous system Astronomers tell us that our universe began with a bang, in fact a Big Bang. Today in our small corner of this universe, some 14 billion years later, physical entities capable of reflecting on their place in this universe have somehow come to exist. It is safe to assume that brains did not simply spring into existence suddenly from nowhere, but how and by what route were brains created? The answer is that, in common with all other manifestations of life, the brain is the
7. Seeing and the brain

7. Seeing and the brain  

Michael Land

in The Eye: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779961
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199680306.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199680306
7. Seeing and the brain The visual pathway ). The two left halves (shaded), each representing the right half of the visual field because of the inversion of the image in the eye, now join together at the optic chiasm, and proceed to the left lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Similarly the two right halves representing the left side of the visual field go to the right LGN. The LGNs are structures in the thalamus, deep in the brain, and they relay the signals from the retinal ganglion cells, without a great deal of change, to the primary visual area on
7. From theory to practice

7. From theory to practice  

Uta Frith

in Autism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776922
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199207565.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199207565
7. From theory to practice
Conclusion

Conclusion  

J. Allan Hobson

in Dreaming: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775499
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802156.003.0012
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802156
Conclusion If the question is how do we understand the mystery of dreams, the simple answer is that there is no longer any mystery – at least no mystery worthy of the creation of mystical dream theories of the past. Surely, the work of sleep science is incomplete. We still do not know enough about how the brain–mind reorganizes itself during sleep and how dreams might be used for better understanding of this function. But, clearly, we know that these details are far more likely to reveal progressive, adaptive information processing during sleep than we have previously imagined possible.
Cognitive Neuroscience: A Very Short Introduction

Cognitive Neuroscience: A Very Short Introduction  

Richard Passingham

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191828607
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198786221.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198786221
A Very Short Introduction
3. Brainy?Why are some people cleverer than others?

3. Brainy?: Why are some people cleverer than others?  

Ian J. Deary

in Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776854
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192893215.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192893215
3. Brainy? Why are some people cleverer than others?
7. Dreaming as delirium: sleep and mental illness

7. Dreaming as delirium: sleep and mental illness  

J. Allan Hobson

in Dreaming: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775499
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802156.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802156
7. Dreaming as delirium: sleep and mental illness is a psychotic state, and it is as psychotic a state as we ever experience while awake. The internally generated perceptions have the hallucinatory power needed to make us hopelessly delusional. In the face of their detail and the powerful takeover of our minds, dream hallucinations make it impossible for us to realize that we are in the grasp of an altered state of consciousness. We are sure we are awake and believe our senses – and the associated emotions – despite the incongruities and discontinuities of dream bizarreness, which, were

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