2. Astronomy in antiquity
4. The calendar and festivals
Days and months and years
The key to the Jewish calendar is Nature.
8. Sikhism and the third millennium
Religion in the 21st century
Prehistory and history of the modern calendar
The Jewish calendar
The Muslim calendar
) reckoned from the Byzantine civil New Year on 1 September. The Prophet, however, broke the link between months and seasons by forbidding intercalation, relying purely on the moon and beginning the month when the new moon had been observed in the night sky by reliable witnesses; as a result, the Muslim calendar consists of 12 lunar months without correction by the sun, so that 33 Muslim years correspond within a few days to 32 Western years.
The months are called Muḥarram, Ṣafar, Rabī ‘al-’awwal, Rabī ‘ al- ’ākhir, Jumadā
A Very Short Introduction