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7. ‘Unless the Lord Build the City …’

7. ‘Unless the Lord Build the City …’  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
7. ‘Unless the Lord Build the City …’
PandemicsA Very Short Introduction

Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction  

Christian W. McMillen

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199340071
A Very Short Introduction
4. Sanitation to education: 1800–1900s

4. Sanitation to education: 1800–1900s  

Virginia Berridge

in Public Health: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Published Online: 
Jul 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785481
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688463.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688463
4. Sanitation to education: 1800–1900s Abstract A key period for public health came with the rise of the ‘modern state’ in the 19th century. Rapid economic growth and mass urbanization coincided with high mortality from infectious diseases, such as cholera and typhus, and the stalling of life expectancy increases because of unhealthy urban environments. ‘Sanitation to education: 1800–1900s’ shows how public health at this time was about sanitation. This focus changed during the century due to Louis Pasteur’s scientific breakthroughs, which brought vaccines and pharmacotherapy for specific diseases. The environmental emphasis of 19th-century public health gave way to a greater
4. Medicine in the community

4. Medicine in the community  

William Bynum

in The History of Medicine: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776984
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199215430.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199215430
4. Medicine in the community
4. Cholera

4. Cholera  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
4. Cholera Abstract Vibrio cholerae in contaminated water. Since the 1960s, oral rehydration therapy has saved millions of lives, but cholera lives on, primarily in Africa, where lack of health infrastructure and poor sanitation allow it to thrive. Vibrio cholerae . For centuries no one knew how to treat it. Then, in the 1960s, medical researchers and clinicians working in Bangladesh determined that a combination of salt, sugar, and water could replace the fluids lost to cholera (and diarrhea generally). Oral rehydration therapy has since saved millions of lives.
1. Plague

1. Plague  

Christian W. McMillen

in Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625214
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340071.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340071
1. Plague Abstract Yersinia pestis, transmitted by the bite of an infected flea. ‘Plague’ identifies three main periods of the pandemic. It first appeared in the sixth century CE with several epidemics in Europe and the Near East lasting until the end of the eight century. The second pandemic—the Black Death—began in 1347 and killed up to half of the continent’s population. The last European outbreak was in Russia in 1770. The third pandemic began in China in 1890 and spread rapidly around the Pacific world. Improved sanitation, isolation, and new antibiotics help, but the plague still exists today.
Infectious DiseaseA Very Short Introduction

Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction  

Marta Wayne and Benjamin Bolker

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199688937
A Very Short Introduction
5. Cholera

5. Cholera  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
5. Cholera Abstract Vibrio cholerae . For illness to occur, humans must consume vast amounts of the bacteria and cholera must possess a cluster of genes involved in creating the toxin co-regulated pilus. The gene for cholera enterotoxin must also be expressed. Treatment for cholera involves giving victims oral rehydration and antibiotics as a secondary defence. ‘Cholera’ explains that cholera gave rise to the foundation of epidemiology and Koch’s postulates, which state the requirements for identifying a particular organism as the causative agent of a disease. It also describes the ways in which cholera evolves antibiotic resistance, the interactions between
6. Enduring images

6. Enduring images  

Paul Slack

in Plague: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777998
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199589548.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199589548
6. Enduring images
7. The lessons of histories

7. The lessons of histories  

Paul Slack

in Plague: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777998
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199589548.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199589548
7. The lessons of histories

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