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3. Amateurs and professionals

3. Amateurs and professionals  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
3. Amateurs and professionals Abstract The vast majority of people who play sport are amateurs who take part for a variety of reasons relating to their social lives, health, and for the pure pleasure of it. ‘Amateurs and professionals’ describes the difference between amateurism and professionalism in sport that emerged in the 19th century. The amateur was someone who stood for a clearly outlined set of values and money was seen as a corrupting force. Sports such as horse racing, cricket, golf, and boxing, which had organized themselves in the 18th century, became professionalized and commercialized rapidly. Others fought professionalism
Conclusion

Conclusion  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
Conclusion Abstract Sport is a physical activity still enjoyed as a natural expression of athleticism and energy, in many different forms and settings, by millions of people around the globe. At the elite level, sport is a multi-billion dollar global business. The Conclusion shows that the 19th-century idea of fair play and sportsmanship still shapes the way in which sport is thought about. But at the core, much of the practice and business of sport is rotten, and does not conform to the ethical and moral ideals that it was founded on. It also concludes that sport, despite all its
Introduction

Introduction  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
Introduction Abstract What is ‘sport’ and why has the urge to run or jump, to wrestle, or master a moving ball individually, or in a team, been part of human culture for so long? The ‘Introduction’ explains that sport has a socio-cultural presence resulting from its daily performance on the pitch, the television screen, in print and online, and has also been reimagined in literary and artistic form throughout history. Sport is currently a predominantly male world of million-dollar salaries and endorsement packages. It is a business that struggles to balance its core historical and philosophical messages, the spirit of
2. Modern

2. Modern  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
2. Modern Abstract The late 19th century was a period of huge innovation and social change across a range of areas. Sport was a by-product of the industrial, transport, and urbanizing revolutions of the period. ‘Modern’ explains that once codified, rationalized, and organized, sports were dispersed on the lines of travel that linked cities with towns, colonies with the home nation, and marketplaces with the suppliers of raw materials. Games such as soccer, rugby, cricket, and baseball were commercialized and professionalized, but in all the changes and transformations as sport modernized and spread, key foundation ethics remained at the heart
SportA Very Short Introduction

Sport: A Very Short Introduction  

Mike Cronin

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199688340
A Very Short Introduction
4. International

4. International  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
4. International Abstract The first recorded international sporting fixture was a cricket match between the United States and Canada in New York in 1844. ‘International’ shows that once sporting organizations, the media, and even politicians began to realize the value of international competition it spread quickly from sport to sport. Groups of national federations came together to form international federations that governed their particular sport, and arranged and sanctioned international competitions. Such organizations included the International Rugby Board (founded 1886), International Olympic Committee (1894), and Fédération Internationale de Football Association (1904). The history of the IOC, the Olympic Games, and

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