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Criminology: A Very Short Introduction

Criminology: A Very Short Introduction  

Tim Newburn

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2018
Published Online: 
Apr 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785511
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199643257.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199643257
A Very Short Introduction
4. Laboratory examination: search, recovery, and analysis

4. Laboratory examination: search, recovery, and analysis  

Jim Fraser

in Forensic Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777400
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199558056.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199558056
4. Laboratory examination: search, recovery, and analysis
2. What is crime?

2. What is crime?  

Tim Newburn

in Criminology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2018
Published Online: 
Apr 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785511
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199643257.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199643257
2. What is crime? crime. Why is this a problem you might well ask? The answer is worth exploring in some detail for not only will it improve our understanding of the subject matter of criminology, it will make us ask the important question: what is the point of criminology ? Indeed, in thinking about this some have argued that we should simply abandon the idea of criminology altogether and instead focus our attentions on a variety of other matters, such as deviance of all kinds, some of which might fit into a traditional conception of criminology, and
6. Understanding the crime drop

6. Understanding the crime drop  

Tim Newburn

in Criminology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2018
Published Online: 
Apr 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785511
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199643257.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199643257
6. Understanding the crime drop indicated, assessing crime trends is fraught with difficulties, one very careful review of evidence nevertheless concluded that ‘it is reasonable to refer to a general crime drop in Europe’. So, the trend being discussed is not one that appears to have been confined to particular cities or particular countries. Nor is it a short-term blip, but has been sustained over a significant period of time, even during periods of great economic turbulence. So how might it be explained?
5. Containing deviancy and liberating work

5. Containing deviancy and liberating work  

Colin Ward

in Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776069
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804778.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804778
5. Containing deviancy and liberating work
3. Crime scene management and forensic investigation

3. Crime scene management and forensic investigation  

Jim Fraser

in Forensic Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777400
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199558056.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199558056
3. Crime scene management and forensic investigation
2. Between the crime and the court

2. Between the crime and the court  

Julian V. Roberts

in Criminal Justice: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785092
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198716495.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716495
2. Between the crime and the court After the commission of the crime and prior to the accused entering a plea, the case is in the hands of the police and the prosecution branches of criminal justice. Most countries operate a professional and independent prosecution service—known as the Crown Prosecution Service in England and Wales. Maintaining a separate prosecution service permits some distance and independence from the professionals gathering evidence, namely the police.
4. Why punish … and how?

4. Why punish … and how?  

Julian V. Roberts

in Criminal Justice: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785092
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198716495.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716495
4. Why punish … and how? why punishment is imposed, and we need to justify the penalties we impose in individual cases. Legal justifications for punishment reflect one of two schools of thought.
6. Hearing the crime victim?

6. Hearing the crime victim?  

Julian V. Roberts

in Criminal Justice: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785092
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198716495.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716495
6. Hearing the crime victim? Thirty years ago someone broke into my home late at night, stealing and damaging some property. Months passed after I had reported the crime to the police, I eventually went to give evidence at the trial of the man accused of the burglary. In fact, I went to court twice, only to be sent home on both occasions, having been told that the matter had been ‘put over’—delayed for some reason that was never explained to me. On the third visit, after passing hours in the waiting area, a prosecutor came over, said, ‘You can
17. ‘A Great Change in Manners’

17. ‘A Great Change in Manners’  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0017
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
17. ‘A Great Change in Manners’
5. Understanding recent trends in crime

5. Understanding recent trends in crime  

Tim Newburn

in Criminology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2018
Published Online: 
Apr 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785511
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199643257.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199643257
5. Understanding recent trends in crime What is happening to crime? This is one of the obvious questions that concerns the public. Are things getting better or worse, and in what ways? The first step is to look to see what our different types of measurement tell us about crime trends. If they offer similar pictures then we’ll have a degree of confidence that the trends identified bear some relationship to reality. Should they differ in important respects then at the very least this should make us scrutinize the trends even more carefully.
1. Introducing criminology

1. Introducing criminology  

Tim Newburn

in Criminology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2018
Published Online: 
Apr 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785511
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199643257.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199643257
1. Introducing criminology In one of his few observations about crime, and in this case slightly tongue in cheek, Karl Marx said, ‘A philosopher produces ideas, a poet poems, a clergyman sermons, a professor compendia and so on. A criminal produces crimes.’ His point was that while we may be used to thinking of crime in moral terms, as something to be avoided or prevented, it can also be seen as a branch of production. ‘Would locks ever have reached their present degree of excellence had there been no thieves?’, he asked. That we see some acts as crimes, and
4. Torture

4. Torture  

Andrew Clapham

in Human Rights: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2015
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785436
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706168.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198706168
4. Torture , some human rights violations give rise to individual criminal responsibility at the international level. This creates not only obligations for governments to investigate and prosecute, but also means that people can be arrested and prosecuted outside their own country. We have already referred to war crimes and set out the definitions of genocide and crimes against humanity. Such crimes have sometimes been prosecuted in international tribunals and, on occasion, at the national level. The crime we shall now consider is torture. The prohibition on torture in the UN Convention against Torture is described in absolute terms: ‘No
8. How do we prevent crime?

8. How do we prevent crime?  

Tim Newburn

in Criminology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2018
Published Online: 
Apr 2018
eISBN: 
9780191785511
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199643257.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199643257
8. How do we prevent crime? , it is almost certainly the case that processes of socialization underpinned and reinforced by informal social control play a vital role in controlling crime. In terms of formal interventions, as indicated, there is now considerable evidence to suggest that various crime prevention techniques have contributed very substantially to recent apparent reductions in crime. Indeed, research in the broad field of crime prevention has been one of criminology’s greatest contributions in recent times.
5. Business as usual

5. Business as usual  

Georgios A. Antonopoulos and Georgios Papanicolaou

in Organized Crime: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2018
Published Online: 
Feb 2018
eISBN: 
9780191836879
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198795544.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198795544
5. Business as usual Our aim in this final chapter is to bring together and evaluate the different images of organized crime that we have considered so far. We began by alerting our readers to the many serious difficulties raised by the concept or idea of organized crime. There is something frustrating about the lack of a clear-cut path to achieving satisfactory levels of conceptual clarity and certainty about organized crime. The exploration of such a path, however, is not simply a scientific endeavour that can be pursued with the precision of a natural science in laboratory-like conditions. The idea
Organized Crime: A Very Short Introduction

Organized Crime: A Very Short Introduction  

Georgios A Antonopoulos and Georgios Papanicolaou

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2018
Published Online: 
Feb 2018
eISBN: 
9780191836879
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198795544.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198795544
A Very Short Introduction
1. What is organized crime?

1. What is organized crime?  

Georgios A. Antonopoulos and Georgios Papanicolaou

in Organized Crime: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2018
Published Online: 
Feb 2018
eISBN: 
9780191836879
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198795544.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198795544
1. What is organized crime? Godfather and Scarface to Pulp Fiction, The Sopranos , and Breaking Bad , the film and TV industry regularly draw on fictional or real figures and situations to fascinate audiences with violence and intrigue unfolding in an obscure underworld. Organized crime feels like a tangible, inescapable issue in today’s world.
Forensic Science: A Very Short Introduction

Forensic Science: A Very Short Introduction  

Jim Fraser

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777400
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199558056.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199558056
A Very Short Introduction
2. Investigating crime

2. Investigating crime  

Jim Fraser

in Forensic Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777400
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199558056.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199558056
2. Investigating crime
6. Prints and marks: more ways to identify people and things

6. Prints and marks: more ways to identify people and things  

Jim Fraser

in Forensic Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777400
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199558056.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199558056
6. Prints and marks: more ways to identify people and things

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