8. Early 20th-century feminism
6. New racisms?
However, even self-confessed racists appear to have as little agreement about how many races exist and how exactly they are to be differentiated from each other as the supporters of the concept of race in the past. This is simply because humanity cannot be divided into races.
Racism without races?
But if races do not really exist and have never existed, and few people now admit to being racist, what makes it possible for responsible researchers in the social sciences, journalists, politicians, and large numbers of ordinary citizens to claim that racism is still widespread
Julian V. Roberts
2. Between the crime and the court
After the commission of the crime and prior to the accused entering a plea, the case is in the hands of the police and the prosecution branches of criminal justice. Most countries operate a professional and independent prosecution service—known as the Crown Prosecution Service in England and Wales. Maintaining a separate prosecution service permits some distance and independence from the professionals gathering evidence, namely the police.
G. Edward White
2. Law and African American slavery
A Very Short Introduction
6. Inconsistencies about madness
8. The future of international migration
Julian V. Roberts
1. Introducing criminal justice
Society causes crime and creates offenders. Think of Robinson Crusoe on the island, but without his ‘Man Friday’. On a desert island there’s no-one from whom to steal, no-one to assault. No society, no laws, no crime, and no criminals. Once a society emerges, rules develop, and when they are broken society must respond—otherwise the rules would lose their potency to affect behaviour.
3. Colonial India: religious and caste divides
Hinduism and partition
In the popular imagination India is often identified as a Hindu country. This is connected to the increased confidence of many Hindus inside India. But the ‘Hindu-ness’ of India and the strength of religious divides and inequalities that are associated with this Hindu-ness need to be explained historically rather than assumed as an aspect of Indian culture.