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1. Souls, seeds, and chauvinism, 2500 bc–ad 400

1. Souls, seeds, and chauvinism, 2500 bc–ad 400  

John Waller

in Heredity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191831706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198790457.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198790457
1. Souls, seeds, and chauvinism, 2500 BC–AD 400
4. Heredity in the Enlightenment

4. Heredity in the Enlightenment  

John Waller

in Heredity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191831706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198790457.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198790457
4. Heredity in the Enlightenment The concept of heredity came of age during the Enlightenment. Botanists and naturalists pioneered the systematic study of sex and inheritance; natural philosophers refined their ideas about how seeds produce living bodies; professional breeders got a lot better at selecting and preserving desirable traits; and the birth of evolutionary theory at the end of the 18th century placed heredity at the very centre of scientific controversy. At the same time, rival ideas about heredity were central to both political philosophies in this age of revolution and reaction and competing attitudes towards gender, slavery, and colonialism.
Eugenics: A Very Short introduction

Eugenics: A Very Short introduction  

Philippa Levine

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780199385935
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199385904.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199385904
A Very Short Introduction
2. Eugenic intelligence

2. Eugenic intelligence  

Philippa Levine

in Eugenics: A Very Short introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780199385935
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199385904.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199385904
2. Eugenic intelligence eugenics , Francis Galton’s early work had centered on the heritability of genius, which he defined as “an ability that was exceptionally high, and at the same time inborn.” In Hereditary Genius (1869), he used statistical methods to trace the lineages of men he considered eminent, concluding that their mental ability was largely inherited. He compared the frequency of eminence among first-degree, second-degree (grandfathers and grandsons; uncles and nephews), and third-degree (great-grandfathers; first cousins) relations to the frequency of eminence in the general population. Finding that eminent men exhibited greater frequency of eminence that declined
Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Racism: A Very Short Introduction  

Ali Rattansi

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192805904
A Very Short Introduction
5. The case against scientific racism

5. The case against scientific racism  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
5. The case against scientific racism In the aftermath of the Holocaust and the ending of the Second World War in 1945, the role of eugenics and scientific racism in underpinning the ideology of Nazism was impossible to ignore. Anti-Semitism was only one amongst several forces that eventually led to the murderous project to annihilate Jews. But it was clear that the question of racism and its scientific basis had to be confronted at an international level as part of the attempt to build a successful post-fascist world order. In July 1950, the newly established UNESCO published a statement that
4. The state in the bedroom

4. The state in the bedroom  

Véronique Mottier

in Sexuality: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777196
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199298020.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199298020
4. The state in the bedroom
4. Imperialism, eugenics, and the Holocaust

4. Imperialism, eugenics, and the Holocaust  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
4. Imperialism, eugenics, and the Holocaust ‘Internal’ racisms Ideas of race derived nourishment as much from concerns internal to Europe as from the growing encounters with non-Europeans in the period of early modernity. It should be clear from the discussion in the last chapter that the schemes of classification of human variety that mushroomed in the 18th and 19th centuries were as anxious about drawing boundaries between white European races or ‘nations’ – Gauls, Saxons, Slavs, and others – as between whites and blacks and Orientals. Growing nationalisms and a conservative reaction against the collapsing hierarchies of the aristocratic order
5. Eugenics after 1945

5. Eugenics after 1945  

Philippa Levine

in Eugenics: A Very Short introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780199385935
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199385904.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199385904
5. Eugenics after 1945 Applied Eugenics , their 1918 college textbook, “was practically forced into existence by logical necessity … it demands the right to speak, in many cases to cast the deciding vote, on some of the most important questions that confront society.” A later textbook, James Neel’s Human Heredity (1954), spoke of the “lurid and disquieting history” of the eugenics movement, where “loose thinking,” especially in Germany and the United States, had discredited eugenics, which, the author hoped, would soon re-emerge on a more reasonable basis. These markedly different perspectives in texts separated by some four
1. The world of eugenics

1. The world of eugenics  

Philippa Levine

in Eugenics: A Very Short introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2017
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780199385935
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199385904.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199385904
1. The world of eugenics Early in the twentieth century, a powerful union of science and social policy emerged in countries across the world. Eugenics, often dubbed the science of good breeding, was a movement committed to using the principles of heredity and statistics to encourage healthy and discourage unhealthy reproduction. Throughout the twentieth century, but especially in earlier decades, eugenics played a significant role in shaping government policy and was perhaps more important in policy circles than in the scientific community in which it had its origins. Grounded in the biological and statistical sciences, eugenics hoped to improve the

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