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2. Evolution

2. Evolution  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
2. Evolution
5. Robot swarms, evolution, and symbiosis

5. Robot swarms, evolution, and symbiosis  

Alan Winfield

in Robotics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778414
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199695980.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199695980
5.
6. Discourse ethics I: the discourse theory of morality

6. Discourse ethics I: the discourse theory of morality  

James Gordon Finlayson

in Habermas: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776274
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192840950.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192840950
6. Discourse ethics I: the discourse theory of morality
8. Of molecules and man

8. Of molecules and man  

Keith Thomson

in Fossils: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776090
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805041.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805041
8. Of molecules and man
2. Finding our place

2. Finding our place  

Bernard Wood

in Human Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775840
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803603.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803603
2. Finding our place
1. Evolution of diplomacy

1. Evolution of diplomacy  

Joseph M. Siracusa

in Diplomacy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777950
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199588503.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199588503
1. Evolution of diplomacy
Oceans: A Very Short Introduction

Oceans: A Very Short Introduction  

Dorrik Stow

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191782428
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199655076.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199655076
A Very Short Introduction
7. Evolution and extinction

7. Evolution and extinction  

Dorrik Stow

in Oceans: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191782428
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199655076.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199655076
7. Evolution and extinction Life is inextricably bound with the oceans, from its first origins to its blossoming into the rich variety we know today. The passage of life through the different eras of ocean history is marked by evolutionary divergence and episodes of mass extinction, when up to 80 per cent of the planet’s species were wiped out. Evolution has been painstakingly slow—from single-celled to multi-celled organisms, from asexual replication to sexual reproduction with associated mutations, and from soft-bodied creatures for which we have sparse fossil evidence to protective hard parts that are a thousand times easier to preserve.
1. Souls, seeds, and chauvinism, 2500 bc–ad 400

1. Souls, seeds, and chauvinism, 2500 bc–ad 400  

John Waller

in Heredity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191831706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198790457.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198790457
1. Souls, seeds, and chauvinism, 2500 BC–AD 400
4. Heredity in the Enlightenment

4. Heredity in the Enlightenment  

John Waller

in Heredity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191831706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198790457.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198790457
4. Heredity in the Enlightenment The concept of heredity came of age during the Enlightenment. Botanists and naturalists pioneered the systematic study of sex and inheritance; natural philosophers refined their ideas about how seeds produce living bodies; professional breeders got a lot better at selecting and preserving desirable traits; and the birth of evolutionary theory at the end of the 18th century placed heredity at the very centre of scientific controversy. At the same time, rival ideas about heredity were central to both political philosophies in this age of revolution and reaction and competing attitudes towards gender, slavery, and colonialism.
1. Introduction

1. Introduction  

Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth

in Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jun 2017
eISBN: 
9780191842719
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198804369.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198804369
1. Introduction We are all one with creeping things;
3. Forest origins

3. Forest origins  

Jaboury Ghazoul

in Forests: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785306
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706175.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198706175
3. Forest origins Plants, of sorts, first started flourishing on dry land on ancient Precambrian coastlines around 600 million years ago (Mya). These early colonizers were lichens—associations of algae and fungi. True plants, in the form of mosses and liverworts, came much later at around 450 Mya, but these were, and still are, small organisms that are incapable of supporting a substantial structure. The origins of forests lie in the evolution of a key innovation some 400 Mya: water-conducting canals stiffened with a tough polymer called lignin. These strengthened water-conducting vessels provided structural support that allowed the early small and
5. Savannas and human evolution

5. Savannas and human evolution  

Peter A. Furley

in Savannas: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2016
Published Online: 
Jun 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785955
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717225.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717225
5. Savannas and human evolution
9. Evolution and another look at the clock

9. Evolution and another look at the clock  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
9. Evolution and another look at the clock
4. The evidence for evolution by natural selection

4. The evidence for evolution by natural selection  

Jonathan Howard

in Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854544
4. The evidence for evolution by natural selection
7. Perfection and progress

7. Perfection and progress  

Jonathan Howard

in Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854544
7. Perfection and progress
8. Darwinism and ideology

8. Darwinism and ideology  

Jonathan Howard

in Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854544
8. Darwinism and ideology
7. The wisdom of crowds

7. The wisdom of crowds  

Tristram D. Wyatt

in Animal Behaviour: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2017
Published Online: 
Feb 2017
eISBN: 
9780191780691
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198712152.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198712152
7. The wisdom of crowds Self-organization There is something mysterious about the way a flock of thousands of birds seems to manoeuvre as one, or the way a school of fish divides and reforms as it moves around a predator. Similarly the busy activity of ants leaving and returning to a nest catches our attention. While we can see the behaviour of individual animals as they move and interact, there is a level of organization and apparent coordination that is visible at the level of the flock, school, or nest. Recent work on collective animal behaviour shows that relatively simple
6. Microbial ecology and evolution

6. Microbial ecology and evolution  

Nicholas P. Money

in Microbiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2014
Published Online: 
Dec 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781605
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199681686.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199681686
6. Microbial ecology and evolution All biology was microbiology for 2.6 billion years before the evolution of multicellular organisms. Many ecosystems remain wholly microbial and microorganisms continue to control environments that appear to be governed by plants and animals. Earth is an exceedingly microbiological planet. And, if life evolves elsewhere in the universe, microbes rather than larger organisms are certain to be the most numerous residents. Reason for confidence in this assertion comes from considering the flow of energy in our biosphere.
1. Validity: what follows from what?

1. Validity: what follows from what?  

Graham Priest

in Logic: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780191848513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811701.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811701
1. Validity: what follows from what? Through the Looking Glass , Alice meets the logic-chopping pair Tweedledum and Tweedledee ( ). When Alice is lost for words, they go onto the attack:

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