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5. Robot swarms, evolution, and symbiosis

5. Robot swarms, evolution, and symbiosis  

Alan Winfield

in Robotics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778414
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199695980.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199695980
5. Robot swarms, evolution, and symbiosis
2. Evolution

2. Evolution  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
2. Evolution
3. The evidence for evolution: similarities and differences between organisms

3. The evidence for evolution: similarities and differences between organisms  

Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth

in Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775581
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802514.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802514
3. The evidence for evolution: similarities and differences between organisms
6. Microbial ecology and evolution

6. Microbial ecology and evolution  

Nicholas P. Money

in Microbiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2014
Published Online: 
Dec 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781605
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199681686.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199681686
6. Microbial ecology and evolution Abstract Many ecosystems are wholly microbial and the activities of microorganisms provide the biochemical foundation for plant and animal life. ‘Microbial ecology and evolution’ describes how plants depend upon the complex redox reactions of microbes that fertilize the soil by fixing nitrogen, converting nitrites to nitrates, enhancing the availability of phosphorus and trace elements, and recycling organic matter. Eukaryotic microorganisms are similarly plentiful and essential for the sustenance of plants and animals. Bacteria, archaea, and single-celled eukaryotes are the masters of the marine environment, harnessing the energy that supports complex ecological interactions between aquatic animals.
3. Forest origins

3. Forest origins  

Jaboury Ghazoul

in Forests: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785306
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706175.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198706175
3. Forest origins Abstract The origins of forests lie in the evolution of a key innovation some 400 million years ago (Mya): water-conducting canals stiffened with lignin that provided structural support allowing early small and prostrate plants to increase their size and stand erect. ‘Forest origins’ describes the evolutionary development of forests from the first forests dating back to the Devonian (385 Mya), through the widespread Carboniferous forest (359–299 Mya), the period of transition at the Permian–Triassic boundary (280–250 Mya), and the impact of the Quaternary Ice Ages, to our modern forests, which can be traced from the end of
4. The evidence for evolution by natural selection

4. The evidence for evolution by natural selection  

Jonathan Howard

in Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854544
4. The evidence for evolution by natural selection
7. Perfection and progress

7. Perfection and progress  

Jonathan Howard

in Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854544
7. Perfection and progress
8. Darwinism and ideology

8. Darwinism and ideology  

Jonathan Howard

in Darwin: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776786
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854544.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854544
8. Darwinism and ideology
2. Finding our place

2. Finding our place  

Bernard Wood

in Human Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775840
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803603.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803603
2. Finding our place Abstract ‘Finding our place’ reviews the history of how philosophers and then scientists came to realize that humans are part of the natural world. Classical philosophers believed mankind evolved from a more primitive form and that the natural world formed one system. The biblical explanation that replaced this separated humanity from animals. This explanation was gradually eroded by the inductive method in science and the study of anatomy. Fossils and geology challenged the biblical calendar of events. Linnaeus' system of classification provided a means to construct a tree of life, which evolution explained. Genetics was the
7. The wisdom of crowds

7. The wisdom of crowds  

Tristram D. Wyatt

in Animal Behaviour: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2017
Published Online: 
Feb 2017
eISBN: 
9780191780691
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198712152.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198712152
7. The wisdom of crowds Self-organization There is something mysterious about the way a flock of thousands of birds seems to manoeuvre as one, or the way a school of fish divides and reforms as it moves around a predator. Similarly the busy activity of ants leaving and returning to a nest catches our attention. While we can see the behaviour of individual animals as they move and interact, there is a level of organization and apparent coordination that is visible at the level of the flock, school, or nest. Recent work on collective animal behaviour shows that relatively simple

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