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Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Sport: A Very Short Introduction  

Mike Cronin

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199688340
A Very Short Introduction
Introduction: what's modern about modern Japan?

Introduction: what's modern about modern Japan?  

Christopher Goto-Jones

in Modern Japan: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2009
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777127
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199235698.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199235698
Introduction: what's modern about modern Japan?
4. ‘Made in Italy’

4. ‘Made in Italy’  

Anna Cento Bull

in Modern Italy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2016
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793332
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198726517.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198726517
4. ‘Made in Italy’ Despite lacking raw materials and still being heavily dependent on agriculture in the early 20th century, Italy managed to become the fifth most industrialized economy in the world by the 1980s. Economic modernization, at least with reference to post-war Italy, would seem both undeniable and uncontroversial. The economic miracle of the 1960s, in particular, was accompanied by social phenomena typically associated with the process of modernization, including urbanization, the predominance of the nuclear family, mass consumerism, and mass transport based on private car ownership. This was the time when Italian design became known the world over,
6. Italy’s ‘soft’ power

6. Italy’s ‘soft’ power  

Anna Cento Bull

in Modern Italy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2016
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793332
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198726517.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198726517
6. Italy’s ‘soft’ power Italy has traditionally failed to influence the world through the use of ‘hard’ power, that is to say, through military and/or economic means. Its most notable attempt to do so during the fascist regime led to tragic outcomes. Since 1945, it has, however, accomplished the not inconsiderable task of seducing the world thanks to the ‘soft’ power of its culture and lifestyle. Soft power was defined by political scientist Joseph Nye as ‘the ability to get the outcomes you want without having to force people to change their behaviour through threats or payments’. This was especially
13. The Masses and the Classes: The Urban Worker

13. The Masses and the Classes: The Urban Worker  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0013
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
13. The Masses and the Classes: The Urban Worker
1. Origins

1. Origins  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
1. Origins The first sports and games were played in various parts of the world, in a variety of different forms. They appear recognizable to us as sports or forms of play, but they are radically different to what we now understand as modern sport. Over the centuries sport has progressed from what has been described as a physical form of ritual, to the modern sporting era where the tightly ruled contests rely on records and measurement in the form of scores, distances, and times. What is understood of ancient sport has largely been recovered through archaeology (texts and material
2. Modern

2. Modern  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
2. Modern The development of modern sports, as we would recognize them now, was primarily a product of the second half of the 19th century. However, prior to the coalescence of various forces that would lead to the rise of sport in its modern, codified, and rational form, there were a series of key building blocks that would inform the Victorian development of sporting activity. The common practice of playing sport on feast days and Sundays had led to the popular spread of games such as folk football. The brief period of Puritan domination in 17th century Britain and colonial
5. Business

5. Business  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
5. Business On 22 June 1938, at New York’s Yankee Stadium, 70,000 spectators gathered to watch Joe Louis fight Max Schmeling, for the World Heavyweight boxing title. The fight was read by the media of the time as symbolizing the battle between American liberal democracy and German Nazism. That Louis was an African-American with restricted civil liberties, and Schmeling an honest and well-respected boxer who was manipulated in the name of Nazi propaganda, mattered little. Given that both boxers were cast as representatives of their respective nations and their political systems, there was an enormous thirst for the fight. The
6. Dark side

6. Dark side  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
6. Dark side Sport is not simply about who wins or loses the game. While events on the field of play may constitute the limits of the actual physical sporting experience, the impact of sport is felt far wider. In 1950, for example, Brazil was the host nation, and hot favourite, for that year’s soccer World Cup. They faced Uruguay in the final, in front of 200,000 supporters, packed into the Maracana stadium in Rio de Janeiro. The Uruguayans stunned the home crowd into silence, scoring the winner, with 11 minutes remaining, to win 2–1. In trying to explain the
4. International

4. International  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
4. International With the emergence of national federations and associations to govern sport in the second half of the 19th century, it was perhaps inevitable that these organizations would look to challenge each other. The first recorded international sporting fixture took place in New York in 1844 at the St George’s Cricket Club in Bloomingdale Park, and pitched a United States team against one from Canada. An estimated 10,000 spectators were in attendance, and some $120,000 of bets were placed. After three days of weather-interrupted play, Canada won. The match is important as it breaks the pattern, which was standard

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