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SportA Very Short Introduction

Sport: A Very Short Introduction  

Mike Cronin

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199688340
A Very Short Introduction
13. The Masses and the Classes: The Urban Worker

13. The Masses and the Classes: The Urban Worker  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0013
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
13. The Masses and the Classes: The Urban Worker
4. ‘Made in Italy’

4. ‘Made in Italy’  

Anna Cento Bull

in Modern Italy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2016
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793332
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198726517.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198726517
4. ‘Made in Italy’ Abstract Despite lacking raw materials and still being heavily dependent on agriculture in the early 20th century, Italy managed to become the fifth most industrialized economy in the world by the 1980s. The economic miracle of the 1960s, in particular, was accompanied by social phenomena typically associated with the process of modernization, including urbanization, the predominance of the nuclear family, mass consumerism, and mass transport based on private car ownership. Italian design became known the world over, combining creativity with craftsmanship. ‘Made in Italy’ describes early industrialization, the ‘golden age’ of the Italian economy, the slowdown
6. Italy’s ‘soft’ power

6. Italy’s ‘soft’ power  

Anna Cento Bull

in Modern Italy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2016
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191793332
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198726517.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198726517
6. Italy’s ‘soft’ power Abstract ‘Italy’s “soft” power’ explores the various dimensions that make up Italy’s soft power, including art and architecture, cinema, literature, music, gastronomy, fashion, sport, diplomacy, and peacekeeping. It traces the rise of this power back to the intense creativity and innovativeness of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. This was the period when Italian art and design successfully sustained and blended with business entrepreneurship and consumerism. But by the 1980s, continuity appeared to trump innovation. With the advent of globalization Italy has struggled to regain its prestige at an international level and has had to undergo a
Introduction: what's modern about modern Japan?

Introduction: what's modern about modern Japan?  

Christopher Goto-Jones

in Modern Japan: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2009
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777127
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199235698.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199235698
Introduction: what's modern about modern Japan?
1. Origins

1. Origins  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
1. Origins Abstract The Sumerians were some of the first humans to record their sporting activity, as wrestlers, around 3000 BC. Wrestling and other early activities appear recognizable to us as sports or forms of play, but are radically different from what we now understand as modern sport. ‘Origins’ shows that over the centuries sport has progressed from what has been described as a physical form of ritual, to the modern sporting era where tightly ruled contests rely on records and measurement. Sport history is not a simple progression from Ancient Greece to the stadia of contemporary sport, but rather
2. Modern

2. Modern  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
2. Modern Abstract The late 19th century was a period of huge innovation and social change across a range of areas. Sport was a by-product of the industrial, transport, and urbanizing revolutions of the period. ‘Modern’ explains that once codified, rationalized, and organized, sports were dispersed on the lines of travel that linked cities with towns, colonies with the home nation, and marketplaces with the suppliers of raw materials. Games such as soccer, rugby, cricket, and baseball were commercialized and professionalized, but in all the changes and transformations as sport modernized and spread, key foundation ethics remained at the heart
5. Business

5. Business  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
5. Business Abstract ‘Business’ describes the commercialization of sport that began in the late 19th century and, with the advent of television, became even greater in the second half of the 20th century. Sport is regularly cited as the third biggest business in the world. The sports business speaks to two separate markets: the players who consume goods and services such as equipment, specialist diets, sports medicine, and affiliation fees; and the spectators of elite sports who avail themselves of stadium tickets, media packages, sporting memorabilia, and various forms of social media as a means of identifying with their sport
6. Dark side

6. Dark side  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
6. Dark side Abstract Sport is not simply about who wins or loses the game. While events on the field of play may constitute the limits of the actual physical sporting experience, the impact of sport is felt far wider. Drug taking, gender twisting, match fixing, playing to the referee, all of these issues have plagued modern sport for a century and a half, and none of them have gone away no matter how the purists objected and the rule book adapted. ‘Dark side’ considers the key issues that continue to affect sport: gender equality; sex and sexuality; institutional racism;
4. International

4. International  

Mike Cronin

in Sport: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191781339
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688340.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688340
4. International Abstract The first recorded international sporting fixture was a cricket match between the United States and Canada in New York in 1844. ‘International’ shows that once sporting organizations, the media, and even politicians began to realize the value of international competition it spread quickly from sport to sport. Groups of national federations came together to form international federations that governed their particular sport, and arranged and sanctioned international competitions. Such organizations included the International Rugby Board (founded 1886), International Olympic Committee (1894), and Fédération Internationale de Football Association (1904). The history of the IOC, the Olympic Games, and

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