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2. Many forests

2. Many forests  

Jaboury Ghazoul

in Forests: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785306
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706175.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198706175
2. Many forests Defining forests Conceptions of what forests are, and how they are defined, vary depending on who is doing the defining. Foresters, ecologists, or farmers (or for that matter, lawyers, urban planners, or furniture makers) might have very different concepts of forests, as might the people of Great Britain or France compared to those of Brazil or Pakistan. Different environmental and cultural histories affect peoples’ visions of what forests are. It is perhaps not surprising, therefore, that as many as 800 different definitions of forests and woodland areas have been collated from around the world. Indeed, the many
3. Forest origins

3. Forest origins  

Jaboury Ghazoul

in Forests: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785306
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706175.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198706175
3. Forest origins Plants, of sorts, first started flourishing on dry land on ancient Precambrian coastlines around 600 million years ago (Mya). These early colonizers were lichens—associations of algae and fungi. True plants, in the form of mosses and liverworts, came much later at around 450 Mya, but these were, and still are, small organisms that are incapable of supporting a substantial structure. The origins of forests lie in the evolution of a key innovation some 400 Mya: water-conducting canals stiffened with a tough polymer called lignin. These strengthened water-conducting vessels provided structural support that allowed the early small and
5. Forest goods and services

5. Forest goods and services  

Jaboury Ghazoul

in Forests: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785306
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706175.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198706175
5. Forest goods and services ), and various groups of Amerindians in Amazonia. Forest resources ), and cocoa that are derived from or grown within forested habitats. Across the globe we all rely on many environmental services that forests provide, ranging from regulation of climate and the hydrological cycle to protection of soil resources, protection from hazards, as well as refuges for biodiversity and our own recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual needs. Timber Timber is, by far, the most valuable commercial forest commodity, with global trade values of wood products amounting to around US$150 billion. Timber has been the mainstay of economic development for much of civilization’s history. It has been used for the construction of cities, ships, and railroads, and as such has generated the means to centralize economic and political power, through vessels for exploration, trade, and conquest, and networks for communication and control. Moreover, wood fuel (though not, strictly, timber) has powered human progress
3. Life in the coastal ocean

3. Life in the coastal ocean  

Philip V. Mladenov

in Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778407
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199695058.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199695058
3. Life in the coastal ocean
Forests: A Very Short Introduction

Forests: A Very Short Introduction  

Jaboury Ghazoul

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785306
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706175.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198706175
A Very Short Introduction
3. Conducting research

3. Conducting research  

Timothy Rice

in Ethnomusicology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2014
Published Online: 
Dec 2013
eISBN: 
9780199375257
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199794379.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199794379
3. Conducting research
4. Disturbance and dynamics

4. Disturbance and dynamics  

Jaboury Ghazoul

in Forests: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785306
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706175.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198706175
4. Disturbance and dynamics Forests are in a constant state of change, and the natural state of any given woodland applies only, to borrow a phrase from Thomas Hardy, ‘at this point of time, at this point of space’. Some perturbations are dramatic, such as forest fires or storms. Others, such as tree diseases, spread slowly through a forest and are both chronic and cryptic. Forest management has often sought to protect forests from such disturbances, but in the process we have disrupted processes of change that are very much integral to the functioning of forest ecosystems. To appreciate how
6. Projection

6. Projection  

Tim Lenton

in Earth System Science: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2016
Published Online: 
Feb 2016
eISBN: 
9780191788338
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198718871.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198718871
6. Projection
1. Savanna landscapes

1. Savanna landscapes  

Peter A. Furley

in Savannas: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2016
Published Online: 
Jun 2016
eISBN: 
9780191785955
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717225.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717225
1. Savanna landscapes
6. Past, present, and future

6. Past, present, and future  

Jaboury Ghazoul

in Forests: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785306
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198706175.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198706175
6. Past, present, and future The past: a history of European deforestation Over forty years ago, Henry Darby, widely regarded as Britain’s first and best-known historical geographers, suggested that ‘the most important single factor that has changed the European landscape is the clearing of the woodland’. A human history of forests is largely one of deforestation, and is as old as human history itself. Hunter-gatherers leave fewer tangible marks on the environment compared to farmers, yet their effects on forests can still be substantial. Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic people in Europe used stone axes to clear a little woodland around

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