1. Looking at rights
These days it is usually not long before a problem is expressed as a human rights issue. This book looks at where the concept of human rights came from and how the human rights movement has developed a set of obligations that apply worldwide. We will consider the trajectory of the idea of human rights and the role that human rights play (and might come to play) in our world.
3. Human rights foreign policy and the role of the United Nations
The narrative about agreed texts and their international supervision leaves many dissatisfied. Where is the enforcement of these rights? We have a legal framework and reports from international secretariats and non-governmental organizations, but where is the pressure to ensure that these rights are realized in practice? What does it really mean when governments say that their foreign policy is concerned with promoting and protecting human rights? Only very rarely do governments actually invoke these treaties before international courts in order to bring international complaints against other states. Clearly
8. Discrimination and equality
As we have seen throughout this short book, discrimination is prohibited with regard to the enjoyment of all rights. We have discovered the immediate obligation to prevent discrimination, not only in the context of the enjoyment of civil and political rights (such as personal freedom from arbitrary detention, freedom of expression, political participation, and association), but also in the fields of food, water, health, education, housing, and work. Now we shall consider the prohibited grounds of discrimination, what new grounds may be emerging, and when drawing distinctions between people can be considered reasonable and therefore legitimate.
5. Data protection
Information is no longer merely power. It is big business. In recent years the fastest growing component of international trade has been the service sector. It accounts for more than a third of world trade—and it continues to expand. It is a commonplace to identify as a central feature of modern industrialized societies their dependence on the storage of information. The use of computers facilitates, of course, considerably greater efficiency and velocity in the collection, storage, use, retrieval, and transfer of information.
Eugene R. Fidell
4. The substantive reach of court-martial jurisdiction
In civilian courts, we have a fairly good sense of the kinds of crimes being prosecuted. Depending on the country and the legal system, these are likely to include traditional crimes of violence such as murder, robbery, rape, and other kinds of assault, as well as other offenses that may not involve the use or threat of violence, such as larceny, drug offenses, child pornography, tax evasion, and securities fraud. One might think that military cases fit a different profile given the specific and limited purposes of military justice—and to a degree they