6. Refugees and asylum-seekers
4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’
As the backlash against multiculturalism has gathered pace, it has been replaced by ‘integration’ as the key theme of national and local policies towards ethnic minorities throughout Europe. In addition, especially in the UK, the ideas of ‘community cohesion’, ‘social cohesion’, and ‘citizenship’ have also been heavily trailed as the new way forward in managing the incorporation of ethnic minorities into the national polity. The British government now has communities ministers, a Commission for Integration and Cohesion, and new government departments. And throughout Western Europe, there has been a new emphasis on clarifying
A Very Short Introduction
2. Is multiculturalism bad for women?
If the origins of multiculturalism can be traced back to the human rights revolution of the second half of the 20th century and the subsequent emergence of progressive social movements including feminism, it might seem odd at first sight to suggest that multiculturalism might be bad for women. But it would only be strange if movements for rights, recognition, inclusion, and redistribution always neatly dovetailed into each other to form a harmonious whole.
How can multiculturalism be bad for women?
The central issue at stake is easy to spell out. If multiculturalism involves support
3. Has multiculturalism created ghettos and ‘parallel lives’?
Riots, reports, and terrorism: 2001 and after
The summer and autumn of 2001 were to prove fateful and, some might argue, fatal for multiculturalism in Britain and the rest of Europe. May, June, and July of 2001 saw ferocious civil disturbances in the northern English ‘mill towns’ (so called because they had previously had thriving textile mills) of Burnley, Oldham, and Bradford. Street battles raged between British Asian youth, mostly Muslim and of South Asian origin, white youth – many belonging to the Far-Right British National Party – and police. Firebombs damaged
5. National identity, belonging, and the ‘Muslim question’
National identity, belonging, and citizenship
If ‘integration’ is replacing multiculturalism in Europe, the question has always arisen: integration into exactly what? Or, in terms of the British idea of ‘community cohesion’, cohesion based on precisely what? Apart from the problems discussed earlier as to how to measure integration and decide when integration has taken place, sceptics have always pointed out that in Britain, say, does integration for immigrants mean aspiring to and succeeding in joining the culture of binge drinking or obesity or xenophobia that are also part of ‘being British’? What
Conclusion: Moving on: multiculturalism, interculturalism, and transnationalism in a new global era
Has multiculturalism failed?
It seems obvious that European nation states have decided that the period of multiculturalism is over. Multiculturalism seems now to be regarded by governments, intellectuals, and large sections of the national populations as either disastrous or at least a serious wrong turn in the response to immigration by non-white populations, usually from former colonies of the European powers in the period after 1945 at the end of the Second World War.
Is multiculturalism in terminal retreat or actually dead?
We Are All Multiculturalists Now :
9. Coping with crises
The eurozone crisis
Even if the common market had been completed on time, it would still have been easier for a company based in Paris to do business with one based in Bordeaux than one based in Frankfurt. The reason is simple: a German company would not have used the same currency as a French one.