Very Short Introduction will summarize recent research on cognitive development and social/emotional development, focusing largely on the years 0–10. Cognitive development covers how children think, learn, and reason. Social/emotional development covers how children develop relationships, a sense of self, and the ability to control their emotions. Social and emotional well-being are intrinsically connected to cognitive growth. A child who is happy and secure in their family, peer group, and larger social environment is well placed to fulfil their cognitive potential. Children who are growing up in environments that make them anxious or fearful will find it more difficult
5. Languages great and small
P. H. Matthews
3. Language in time and space
Stephen R. Anderson
1. Introduction: dimensions of linguistic diversity
The object of inquiry in linguistics is human language, and in particular, the extent and limits of diversity in the world’s languages. It might be supposed, therefore, that linguists would have a clear and reasonably precise notion of how many languages there are in the world. As we explore various ways of approaching this question in the course of the present book, though, we will find that there is no such definite count – or at least, no such count that has any status as a scientific finding of modern linguistics. The reason for
John C. Maher
9. Endangered languages
The way language lives now
In many countries there are speakers of lesser-known languages who live on the rim of two worlds: a small circle of heritage language speakers, and a large, modernizing, monolingual society. By the end of the 21st century, half the languages spoken in the world today may have disappeared. Fewer than 10,000 people speak 52 per cent of languages, and 83 per cent are spoken in single countries only, thereby exposing them to the policies of a single government. One-third of the world’s alphabets are endangered. Many language communities have approached the point
A. C. Grayling
4. Wittgenstein and recent philosophy
P. H. Matthews
7. How much is systematic?
1. What and when is prehistory?