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3. Deep Earth

3. Deep Earth  

Martin Redfern

in The Earth: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775734
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803078.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803078
3. Deep Earth
6. Tectonics of continents

6. Tectonics of continents  

Peter Molnar

in Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2015
Published Online: 
Mar 2015
eISBN: 
9780191794513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728269.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728269
6. Tectonics of continents ‘Tectonics’ is a geological term that refers to large-scale processes affecting the structure of the Earth’s crust, and particularly the structure that results from deformation of the crust. The essence of ‘plate tectonics’ is that vast regions move with respect to one another as (nearly) rigid objects. Therefore the words ‘plate tectonics’ provide an ironic twist: the study of ‘plate tectonics’ has focused largely on the study of places in which the structure of the Earth’s crust does not change, where there is no tectonics at all. Although plate tectonics works well for the vast regions
Rocks: A Very Short Introduction

Rocks: A Very Short Introduction  

Jan Zalasiewicz

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191792588
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198725190.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198725190
A Very Short Introduction
10. Probing the Earth with isotopes

10. Probing the Earth with isotopes  

Rob Ellam

in Isotopes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2016
Published Online: 
May 2016
eISBN: 
9780191790737
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198723622.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198723622
10. Probing the Earth with isotopes Earth’s internal structure Over four billion years of active geology has made Earth a very differentiated planet. The outer few tens of kilometres (km) is known as the crust, and can be divided into continental and oceanic crust. The continental crust includes the exposed landmasses and the adjacent continental shelves, which represent parts of the continents that are currently flooded by the seas to a depth of about 150 metres (m). The continental crust is enriched in elements such as silicon and aluminium which make it low in density compared to the whole Earth.
3. Seismology and the Earth’s internal structure

3. Seismology and the Earth’s internal structure  

William Lowrie

in Geophysics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191834707
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198792956.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198792956
3. Seismology and the Earth’s internal structure Elastic deformation Seismology is the most powerful geophysical tool for understanding the structure of the Earth. It is concerned with how the Earth vibrates. In the same way that the strings of a guitar vibrate back and forth in a periodic motion when plucked, the solid material in the Earth reacts to a sudden jolt by vibrating. This is particularly evident when an earthquake strikes, but it can also happen as reaction to a local shock. Physically, seismic behaviour depends on the relationship between stress and strain in the Earth, so if we
6. Volcanoes

6. Volcanoes  

Martin Redfern

in The Earth: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775734
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803078.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803078
6. Volcanoes
Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction

Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction  

Peter Molnar

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2015
Published Online: 
Mar 2015
eISBN: 
9780191794513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728269.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198728269
A Very Short Introduction
1. The basic idea

1. The basic idea  

Peter Molnar

in Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2015
Published Online: 
Mar 2015
eISBN: 
9780191794513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728269.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728269
1. The basic idea In the 1960s the Apollo missions to the Moon dominated geological, or Earth, science, but as that story was playing out in space, a bunch of mostly young, unknown scientists were leading a revolution that overturned our understanding of the Earth. Most geologists had viewed the Earth as ‘solid as a rock’, and therefore not deforming significantly. The surface of the Earth went up and down, somehow, and mountain ranges managed to grow in the face of erosion, which continually wore them down. Few, if any, however, realized that 20 million years from now the cities
5. Rocks in the deep

5. Rocks in the deep  

Jan Zalasiewicz

in Rocks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191792588
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198725190.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198725190
5. Rocks in the deep really know the exterior of our planet, rather like the microbes that cling only to the surface of the skin of an apple, oblivious to the flesh of the apple that lies within. The Earth is a very large mass of rock, being over 6,000 km to its centre. Our direct experience of it goes to almost 4 km below the surface—in the deepest mines on Earth, the South African gold mines. The crust there is comparatively cool, which allows humans to penetrate that far, albeit aided by excellent cooling and ventilation systems, and
8. Human-made rocks

8. Human-made rocks  

Jan Zalasiewicz

in Rocks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191792588
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198725190.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198725190
8. Human-made rocks Rocks are made out of minerals, and those minerals are not a constant of the universe. A little like biological organisms, they have evolved and diversified through time. As the minerals have evolved, so have the rocks that they make up. We have seen in the preceding chapters some of the ways in which rock units have changed through geological time. However, as regards both rocks and minerals—and the structures made of them—we seem to be entering a remarkable new phase of history. We do not know where this phase is leading to, or when or how

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