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3. Deep Earth

3. Deep Earth  

Martin Redfern

in The Earth: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775734
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803078.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803078
3. Deep Earth
RocksA Very Short Introduction

Rocks: A Very Short Introduction  

Jan Zalasiewicz

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191792588
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198725190.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198725190
A Very Short Introduction
6. Tectonics of continents

6. Tectonics of continents  

Peter Molnar

in Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2015
Published Online: 
Mar 2015
eISBN: 
9780191794513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728269.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728269
6. Tectonics of continents Abstract ‘Tectonics of continents’ shows that the much greater thickness of continental than oceanic crust makes continental and oceanic lithosphere behave differently. First, because crust is less dense and therefore buoyant, compared with the mantle, thick continental crust resists subduction into the asthenosphere. Slices of the upper part of the crust detach from underlying parts and become stacked atop one another to form a mountain range, like the Alps or Himalaya. Second, continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere and when put under stress it deforms. When the horizontal dimension of a region of continental crust
10. Probing the Earth with isotopes

10. Probing the Earth with isotopes  

Rob Ellam

in Isotopes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2016
Published Online: 
May 2016
eISBN: 
9780191790737
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198723622.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198723622
10. Probing the Earth with isotopes Abstract ‘Probing the Earth with isotopes’ shows how, using isotopes, we have come to understand the structure and behaviour of the Earth. The outer few tens of kilometres are divided into continental and oceanic crust. Below the crust, the sub-surface is divided into the mantle and the core. From the base of the crust to about 2,800 km depth, the Earth is rocky and composed of minerals like olivine and pyroxene that are rich in magnesium, iron, and calcium. From about 2,800 km to about 5,100 km depth the outer core is liquid. The
6. Volcanoes

6. Volcanoes  

Martin Redfern

in The Earth: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775734
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803078.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803078
6. Volcanoes
5. Rocks in the deep

5. Rocks in the deep  

Jan Zalasiewicz

in Rocks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191792588
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198725190.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198725190
5. Rocks in the deep Abstract It is over 6,000 km to the centre of the Earth, but our direct experience of its rocks goes to little more than 3 km below the surface in the deepest mines on Earth. ‘Rocks in the deep’ shows that we can find out more by assessing rock fragments brought from deeper levels by tectonic or volcanic processes; by analysing patterns of change in the gravitational and magnetic fields; by detecting seismic waves that have travelled through the Earth; or by recreating conditions of the deep Earth in the laboratory. It describes what is
8. Human-made rocks

8. Human-made rocks  

Jan Zalasiewicz

in Rocks: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780191792588
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198725190.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198725190
8. Human-made rocks Abstract As minerals have evolved, so have the rocks that they make up. ‘Human-made rocks’ explains that we are entering a remarkable new phase of history that is of planetary—and perhaps wider—importance. Humans have begun to modify the chemistry and mineralogy of the Earth’s surface, and this has included the manufacture of many new types of mineral, mineral compounds, and mineraloids such as extracting metals from ores and creating plastics and glass. Humans have created new rock types including bricks, ceramics, cement, and concrete. These, along with our subterranean activities and the potential ‘technofossils’ of all that
Plate TectonicsA Very Short Introduction

Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction  

Peter Molnar

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2015
Published Online: 
Mar 2015
eISBN: 
9780191794513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728269.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198728269
A Very Short Introduction
1. The basic idea

1. The basic idea  

Peter Molnar

in Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2015
Published Online: 
Mar 2015
eISBN: 
9780191794513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728269.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728269
1. The basic idea Abstract ‘The basic idea’ presents the principles of plate tectonics and describes how this revolutionary theory took hold. It begins with Alfred Wegener in 1912, who proposed the concept of continental drift and a former huge continent, Gondwanaland. In the face of strong opposition, this theory was supported by the development of palaeomagnetism in the 1950s and, in the 1960s, became subsumed within the broader framework of plate tectonics. Three major events precipitated this change: a switch in emphasis from continents to ocean basins and their exploration; rapid growth in seismology; and a shift in perspective

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