However, even self-confessed racists appear to have as little agreement about how many races exist and how exactly they are to be differentiated from each other as the supporters of the concept of race in the past. This is simply because humanity cannot be divided into races.
Racism without races?
But if races do not really exist and have never existed, and few people now admit to being racist, what makes it possible for responsible researchers in the social sciences, journalists, politicians, and large numbers of ordinary citizens to claim that racism is still widespread
Racist identities: ambivalence, contradiction, and commitment
Let us begin with Kilroy-Silk, again. I expressed the judgement above that his remarks on ‘Arabs’ constituted a relatively strong form of racialization, and thereby had already entered the terrain of racism by using some of its key elements. Furthermore, his cavalier description of Arabs as inferior meant that the charge of racism has further plausibility, although I must stress that this is not the same as labelling him a racist in some absolute, definitive sense.
In support of Kilroy-Silk, he and others cited the frequent appearance of British ethnic minority individuals on
12. Etruscology: Its Origins and Development
4. Rhetoric in the Modern World
A Very Short Introduction
2. Eugenic intelligence
eugenics , Francis Galton’s early work had centered on the heritability of genius, which he defined as “an ability that was exceptionally high, and at the same time inborn.” In Hereditary Genius (1869), he used statistical methods to trace the lineages of men he considered eminent, concluding that their mental ability was largely inherited. He compared the frequency of eminence among first-degree, second-degree (grandfathers and grandsons; uncles and nephews), and third-degree (great-grandfathers; first cousins) relations to the frequency of eminence in the general population. Finding that eminent men exhibited greater frequency of eminence that declined