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Introduction

Introduction  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
Introduction
1. Racism and racists: some conundrums

1. Racism and racists: some conundrums  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
1. Racism and racists: some conundrums judenrein , or ‘clean of Jews’. The Nazis were in no doubt that Jews were a distinct race and posed a threat to the Aryan race to which authentic Germans supposedly belonged. With hindsight, it is possible to see that many of the dilemmas that have accompanied the proliferation of the notion of racism were present from the beginning. The idea that Jews were a distinct race was given currency by Nazi racial science. But before that, there was little consensus that Jews were a distinct race. Does that make it inappropriate to describe
4. Take the money and run

4. Take the money and run  

Katherine Hawley

in Trust: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778421
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199697342.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199697342
4. Take the money and run Playing the trust game You’re at an unfamiliar bar, chatting to a new acquaintance, Daniel, when an economist approaches with a glint in her eye and a wallet full of cash. She offers you ten dollars – the money is yours to keep, and you can pocket it right away if you like. But you have another option. If you give some or all of the ten dollars to Daniel, the economist will triple the gift – if you hand over four dollars, the economist will add another eight, so that Daniel gets a
6. New racisms?

6. New racisms?  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
6. New racisms? racist . However, even self-confessed racists appear to have as little agreement about how many races exist and how exactly they are to be differentiated from each other as the supporters of the concept of race in the past. This is simply because humanity cannot be divided into races. Racism without races? But if races do not really exist and have never existed, and few people now admit to being racist, what makes it possible for responsible researchers in the social sciences, journalists, politicians, and large numbers of ordinary citizens to claim that racism is still widespread
7. Racist identities: ambivalence, contradiction, and commitment

7. Racist identities: ambivalence, contradiction, and commitment  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
7. Racist identities: ambivalence, contradiction, and commitment Let us begin with Kilroy-Silk, again. I expressed the judgement above that his remarks on ‘Arabs’ constituted a relatively strong form of racialization, and thereby had already entered the terrain of racism by using some of its key elements. Furthermore, his cavalier description of Arabs as inferior meant that the charge of racism has further plausibility, although I must stress that this is not the same as labelling him a racist in some absolute, definitive sense. In support of Kilroy-Silk, he and others cited the frequent appearance of British ethnic minority individuals on
2. Why trust and trustworthiness matter

2. Why trust and trustworthiness matter  

Katherine Hawley

in Trust: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778421
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199697342.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199697342
2. Why trust and trustworthiness matter The advantages of being trusted; the disadvantages of being distrusted
2. Migration

2. Migration  

Kevin Kenny

in Diaspora: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365913
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199858583.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199858583
2. Migration
Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Racism: A Very Short Introduction  

Ali Rattansi

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192805904
A Very Short Introduction
Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction

Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction  

Ali Rattansi

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777288
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546039.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199546039
A Very Short Introduction
1. What is multiculturalism?

1. What is multiculturalism?  

Ali Rattansi

in Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777288
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546039.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199546039
1. What is multiculturalism? Perhaps what is clearest in recent public debates about multiculturalism is that not much is clear when it comes to the key terms involved. An acceptable definition of multiculturalism has been notoriously elusive. In turn, proposed alternatives such as ‘integration’ have also remained vague. It is best, then, to begin with some brief historical and terminological preliminaries to which the discussion will return at various points in the book. Cultural diversity and multiculturalism ‘Multiculturalism’ entered public discourses in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when both Australia and Canada began to declare their support for it.
4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’

4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’  

Ali Rattansi

in Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777288
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546039.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199546039
4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’ As the backlash against multiculturalism has gathered pace, it has been replaced by ‘integration’ as the key theme of national and local policies towards ethnic minorities throughout Europe. In addition, especially in the UK, the ideas of ‘community cohesion’, ‘social cohesion’, and ‘citizenship’ have also been heavily trailed as the new way forward in managing the incorporation of ethnic minorities into the national polity. The British government now has communities ministers, a Commission for Integration and Cohesion, and new government departments. And throughout Western Europe, there has been a new emphasis on clarifying
2. Sex, seed, and sin in the medieval world

2. Sex, seed, and sin in the medieval world  

John Waller

in Heredity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191831706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198790457.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198790457
2. Sex, seed, and sin in the medieval world By the early 500s AD, with the withdrawal of Rome’s legions and the rise of independent barbarian kingdoms, the peoples of Western Europe no longer felt the force of Roman government. The decline of the Roman Empire led to a dramatic drop in trade and the loss of vast quantities of ancient scholarship. Then, around 1000 AD, advances in farming, transport, and finance as well as an improving climate allowed crop yields to grow and commerce to flourish once again. A dramatic increase in wealth in turn sustained an upswing in
8. Progress and possibility

8. Progress and possibility  

John Waller

in Heredity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2017
Published Online: 
Aug 2017
eISBN: 
9780191831706
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198790457.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198790457
8. Progress and possibility Heredity in brief
6. Knowledge and expertise

6. Knowledge and expertise  

Katherine Hawley

in Trust: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778421
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199697342.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199697342
6. Knowledge and expertise Honesty and good intentions are not enough: in trusting, we also seek competence. If I trust what you tell me about where to find a reliable builder, I trust that you are honest, but I must also trust that you know what you’re talking about. If I trust you to look after my pets when I’m on holiday, I trust that your intentions are good, but I must also trust that you know how to look after a Great Dane and a Siberian hamster.
9. Swing to the right, 1977–1995

9. Swing to the right, 1977–1995  

Michael Stanislawski

in Zionism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2016
Published Online: 
Dec 2016
eISBN: 
9780190625207
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199766048.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199766048
9. Swing to the right, 1977–1995 When Menachem Begin took office as prime minister of Israel on June 20, 1977, his goal was clear: to implement as quickly and as extensively as possible the policies of Revisionist Zionism as articulated by his mentor and hero, Vladimir Jabotinsky. This meant opposing any territorial concessions that would diminish the gains of the 1967 war; expanding Jewish settlements in “Judea and Samaria”—a.k.a. the Occupied Territories; and transforming the economy of Israel from a Scandinavian-style social welfare model to an American-style capitalist system with as little state interference as possible. Thus, the new minister
3. Connections

3. Connections  

Kevin Kenny

in Diaspora: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365913
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199858583.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199858583
3. Connections
6. The future of diaspora

6. The future of diaspora  

Kevin Kenny

in Diaspora: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780199365913
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199858583.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199858583
6. The future of diaspora
3. Beyond the pale: scientific racism, the nation, and the politics of colour

3. Beyond the pale: scientific racism, the nation, and the politics of colour  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
3. Beyond the pale: scientific racism, the nation, and the politics of colour When Columbus set out on his momentous journey to what he thought was Asia, the significance of the year, 1492, was not lost on him. He wrote at the head of the first journal of his travels: The ‘Indians’ encounter Columbus The shores on which Columbus landed, as we now know, were far from the ‘Indies’. But he was convinced that he had found what he was looking for. One of the lessons of the history of ‘race’ is an appreciation of the extent to which European
5. The case against scientific racism

5. The case against scientific racism  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
5. The case against scientific racism In the aftermath of the Holocaust and the ending of the Second World War in 1945, the role of eugenics and scientific racism in underpinning the ideology of Nazism was impossible to ignore. Anti-Semitism was only one amongst several forces that eventually led to the murderous project to annihilate Jews. But it was clear that the question of racism and its scientific basis had to be confronted at an international level as part of the attempt to build a successful post-fascist world order. In July 1950, the newly established UNESCO published a statement that
8. Beyond institutional racism: ‘race’, class, and gender in the USA and Britain

8. Beyond institutional racism: ‘race’, class, and gender in the USA and Britain  

Ali Rattansi

in Racism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776137
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805904.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805904
8. Beyond institutional racism: ‘race’, class, and gender in the USA and Britain Origins Black Power (1967), their powerful indictment of persistent black inequalities. Stokely and Carmichael wanted to highlight the process whereby, no matter whether the individual attitudes, motivations, and behaviour of ordinary white people were racist or not, all whites benefited from social structures and organizational patterns which continually disadvantaged blacks while allowing whites to stay well ahead in living standards, including housing, health and life span, neighbourhood amenities and safety, educational facilities and achievement, level of employment, and income and wealth. They made it clear that

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