1. The religious roots of feminism
8. Name, sex, and religion
10. Feminists across the world
2. Fear of the dark?: blacks, Jews, and barbarians
By the time Marr penned his diatribe against the Jews in the 1870s, most of the elements of the modern concept of race were already in place. The idea that human biological characteristics such as skin colour, shape of nose, type of hair, and size of skull were associated with ingrained cultural and behavioural traits was well established. It was widely held that level of ability to use reason, capacity for ‘civilization’ and the arts, and tendencies towards sexual lasciviousness, for example, could all be read off from a study of
6. New racisms?
However, even self-confessed racists appear to have as little agreement about how many races exist and how exactly they are to be differentiated from each other as the supporters of the concept of race in the past. This is simply because humanity cannot be divided into races.
Racism without races?
But if races do not really exist and have never existed, and few people now admit to being racist, what makes it possible for responsible researchers in the social sciences, journalists, politicians, and large numbers of ordinary citizens to claim that racism is still widespread
2. Imperial revolution: embracing modernity
A Very Short Introduction
Michael Allen Fox
3. Dwelling and dwellings
What dwelling means
introduced the idea of humans as dwellers on the Earth. The word ‘dwelling’ seems to capture as well as any the idea of abiding in or occupying a place somewhere which is thought of as home. And it has the merit of embracing the astonishing number of structures and methods for inhabiting the world that our species has creatively devised over time. Yet it is another paradox of our topic that the word ‘dwell’ has itself undergone a dramatic change in meaning while evolving to its modern usage. In Old English,
Michael Allen Fox
5. People, objects, and identity
Identity and home
. A major focal point for the construction of self-identity is the home. Psychiatrist James Yandell offers the following insight:
Michael Allen Fox
6. Home politics
Politics as inescapable
). Specifically, politics refers to the processes and strategies people use to obtain what they want. It also concerns the outcomes and social structures that result and their influence, in turn, on shaping people’s everyday lives. Home politics affects anyone who lives with other people, because transforming a space into a home involves negotiations of various sorts. Wherever people live together, there is bound to be a regime for gaining power and advantage, or agreeing to share them. Sometimes the energies and structures that flow from these arrangements are evident to us, sometimes not.
8. Judaism today
No religion has emerged unchanged into the 21st century. New scientific discoveries and historical criticism have kept alive questions raised since early modern times about the truth and ‘authenticity’ of sacred texts. Increasing secularization of government in the West has undermined the power of the religious leadership. Values have changed. The pursuit of equal and universal human rights, irrespective of race, colour, gender, or creed, is seen as important, while the pursuit of correct doctrine is perceived by most people as neither important nor achievable. Individual freedom to go your own way, even in sexual matters, provided
5. Definitions, types, domains
Catching cultures in high relief
Stephen J. Davis
6. A global phenomenon in the contemporary world
5. The self
Spirits and souls
Who—or what—am I? Answers such as ‘I am my body’ or ‘I am my brain’ are unsatisfactory because I don’t feel like a body or a brain. I feel like someone who owns them. But who could this be who feels as though she lives inside this head and looks out through the eyes? Who is it who seems to be living this life and having these experiences?
From the scientific point of view there is no need for an owner; no need for an inner experiencer to observe what the brain is doing;