2. The moral status of animals
8. Is medical research the new imperialism?
5. Data protection
Information is no longer merely power. It is big business. In recent years the fastest growing component of international trade has been the service sector. It accounts for more than a third of world trade—and it continues to expand. It is a commonplace to identify as a central feature of modern industrialized societies their dependence on the storage of information. The use of computers facilitates, of course, considerably greater efficiency and velocity in the collection, storage, use, retrieval, and transfer of information.
4. Freedom and the limits of government
3. Human rights foreign policy and the role of the United Nations
The narrative about agreed texts and their international supervision leaves many dissatisfied. Where is the enforcement of these rights? We have a legal framework and reports from international secretariats and non-governmental organizations, but where is the pressure to ensure that these rights are realized in practice? What does it really mean when governments say that their foreign policy is concerned with promoting and protecting human rights? Only very rarely do governments actually invoke these treaties before international courts in order to bring international complaints against other states. Clearly
8. Discrimination and equality
As we have seen throughout this short book, discrimination is prohibited with regard to the enjoyment of all rights. We have discovered the immediate obligation to prevent discrimination, not only in the context of the enjoyment of civil and political rights (such as personal freedom from arbitrary detention, freedom of expression, political participation, and association), but also in the fields of food, water, health, education, housing, and work. Now we shall consider the prohibited grounds of discrimination, what new grounds may be emerging, and when drawing distinctions between people can be considered reasonable and therefore legitimate.
9. Second-wave feminism: the late 20th century