The Koran in the traditional Muslim world
The Koran as codex
There are many ways to present a text. This is influenced by culture and materials. ‘The Koran as codex’ examines how the Koran was first assembled and how it is presented today. The leaves of a Koran in the early Islamic period were papyrus or parchment. After the middle of the eighth century, paper would have been used. What does it mean to say that the Koran is a sacred book? The text contained is sacred, but so is the book itself. There are many practical difficulties that arise from this. How should an
Introduction: defining paganism
5. From darkness to light
Live performance of ritual constitutes the centrepiece of activities in freemasonry and is one of the defining features that distinguish it from the majority of other associations. The rituals of freemasonry developed during the 18th and 19th centuries and have since remained unchanged in their general design. Masonic rituals take place inside (and partly outside) the lodge according to a more or less predefined script (the ritual text) as a dramatizing performance in ritual and real time—much like a musical score and a concert, or a play and its performance. Rituals fulfil three major functions:
Robin Le Poidevin
6. How should the agnostic live?
5. Definitions, types, domains
2. The Etruscan language
‘The Etruscan language’ describes what we know about the language of the Etruscans and how much we can decipher about them from their language. Etruscan is not an Indo-European language. Almost all Etruscan we see now survives as inscriptions on stone, metal, painted surface, or pottery. However, the inscriptions that exist only get us so far in understanding this culture. It mostly appears as dedications although there are some longer inscriptions, and some important bilingual inscriptions. Etruscan books on ritual matters were consulted outside Etruria but none has survived.
). (On the whole, Etruscan inscriptions