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5. Working with offenders

5. Working with offenders  

David Canter

in Forensic Psychology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777332
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199550203.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199550203
5. Working with offenders
5. A chastened individualism? Existentialism and social thought

5. A chastened individualism? Existentialism and social thought  

Thomas Flynn

in Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2006
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775932
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804280.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804280
5. A chastened individualism? Existentialism and social thought
4. How do we use what is in the mind? Thinking, reasoning, and communicating

4. How do we use what is in the mind? Thinking, reasoning, and communicating  

Gillian Butler and McManus Freda

in Psychology: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2014
Published Online: 
Jan 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779831
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199670420.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199670420
4. How do we use what is in the mind? Thinking, reasoning, and communicating
1. What is thought?

1. What is thought?  

Tim Bayne

in Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778148
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601721.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601721
1. What is thought? Man is but a reed, the most feeble thing in nature; but he is a thinking reed. Blaise Pascal What is thought? This might seem like a strange question to pose at the outset of a book, for it is a fairly safe bet that anyone bold enough to read a book—especially a book on thought!—will not be unaccustomed to thinking. In fact, you have probably already had quite a number of thoughts today. Although there may be periods during the course of a normal day during which one has few thoughts—perhaps there are even times
3. The inner sanctum

3. The inner sanctum  

Tim Bayne

in Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778148
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601721.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601721
3. The inner sanctum Like the notes of an old violin, Thoughts talk to me within My mind, that shuttered room. Siegfried Sassoon, ‘Old Music’, in Rhymed Ruminations In Greek mythology the god Momus is said to have expressed dissatisfaction with man because his state of mind could not be easily discerned. Instead, Momus suggested, human beings ought to have been built with a window in their breast so that their mental states could be more easily identified. The idea that a person’s thoughts might be hidden in the secret recesses of their mind is not an unfamiliar one. Uncertainty
7. The ethics of thought

7. The ethics of thought  

Tim Bayne

in Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778148
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601721.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601721
7. The ethics of thought
3. Thinking hypothetically

3. Thinking hypothetically  

Jonathan St B. T. Evans

in Thinking and Reasoning: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191829321
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198787259.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198787259
3. Thinking hypothetically A remarkable and distinctive feature of human intelligence is our ability to think hypothetically. We can imagine how things might be in the future and how they might have turned out differently in the past. Such are our powers of imagination that we enjoy reading novels and watching dramas on TV or in the cinema, an extraordinary demonstration in itself of the unique form of human intelligence. Imagination is not just there for entertainment, however. It plays an important role in science, arts, and engineering, and is fundamental to rational decision making.
6. Are we rational?

6. Are we rational?  

Jonathan St B. T. Evans

in Thinking and Reasoning: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191829321
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198787259.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198787259
6. Are we rational? Most of the topics covered in this book allow human thinking and reasoning to be compared with a ‘normative’ standard, a formal theory of right and wrong answers. The normative theories mostly applied are decision theory, probability theory, or logic. We have seen that people frequently make errors by these standards and have been shown to have many cognitive biases. Some psychologists and philosophers have wondered whether this means that human beings must be intrinsically irrational. This question is not as simple as it seems, however, and has been the subject of much fierce debate over
7. From dual processes to two minds

7. From dual processes to two minds  

Jonathan St B. T. Evans

in Thinking and Reasoning: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191829321
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198787259.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198787259
7. From dual processes to two minds may need at times to pay conscious attention. If a hazardous situation arises, for example when traffic ahead suddenly slows down, our attention will switch to the task of driving and we can no longer follow what is on the radio. This tells us some important things. First, while our conscious attention is elsewhere, some process in our brain is still monitoring the road situation for hazards and is able to call up conscious attention when required. Second, it shows us that our ability to think consciously is limited and we need
2. Heidegger's Philosophy

2. Heidegger's Philosophy  

Michael Inwood

in Heidegger: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776649
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854100.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854100
2. Heidegger's Philosophy
1. Introduction and history

1. Introduction and history  

Jonathan St B. T. Evans

in Thinking and Reasoning: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191829321
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198787259.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198787259
1. Introduction and history The French philosopher Descartes famously said ‘I think therefore I am’. Thinking is indeed the essence of what it means to be human and defines us more than anything else as a species. The remarkable success of humans, far ahead of all other animals, is based on our unique powers of thought. By thinking, and especially by reasoning to a purpose, we can exercise all the formidable powers of human intelligence. Reasoning can help us to solve novel problems, to make one-off decisions, to develop mathematics, science, and engineering, to design our environments to suit ourselves.
Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Thought: A Very Short Introduction  

Tim Bayne

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778148
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601721.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199601721
A Very Short Introduction
4. Brute thought

4. Brute thought  

Tim Bayne

in Thought: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778148
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199601721.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199601721
4. Brute thought A dog can believe his master is at the door. But can he also believe that his master will come the day after tomorrow? Philosophical Investigations Can non-human animals think? If so, what kinds of thoughts can they enjoy? Dogs might have beliefs and desires of certain kinds, but can they entertain the possibility that something could be the case or hope that it is the case? Whether or not non-human animals are capable of thoughts of any kind, it is clear that there are profound differences between the cognitive capacities of humans and those of other
Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction

Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction  

Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191795558
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728795.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198728795
A Very Short Introduction
Thinking and Reasoning: A Very Short Introduction

Thinking and Reasoning: A Very Short Introduction  

Jonathan St B. T. Evans

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191829321
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198787259.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198787259
A Very Short Introduction
Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short introduction

Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short introduction  

Michael Beaney

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191823442
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198778028.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198778028
A Very Short Introduction
Introduction

Introduction  

Michael Beaney

in Analytic Philosophy: A Very Short introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2017
Published Online: 
Nov 2017
eISBN: 
9780191823442
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198778028.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198778028
Introduction Many professional philosophers working today would describe themselves as ‘analytic philosophers’. Certainly, this is true of many philosophers teaching in colleges and universities in the English-speaking world. But analytic philosophy has been growing rapidly elsewhere: one sign of this is the establishment over the last twenty years or so of societies for analytic philosophy right across the world, from East Asia to Latin America. This is not to say that there is agreement on what ‘analytic philosophy’ means or what its main concerns, methods, and successes are. But I hope that this book will give you some idea of
1. The Image of Nietzsche

1. The Image of Nietzsche  

Michael Tanner

in Nietzsche: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776670
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854148.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854148
1.
3. Evolving trust and cooperation

3. Evolving trust and cooperation  

Katherine Hawley

in Trust: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778421
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199697342.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199697342
3. Evolving trust and cooperation Bats, bees, and chimpanzees In the movies, vampire bats go out at night to feast upon the blood of innocent maidens, but in real life they stick to cattle and horses. Some nights, an individual bat is unlucky and returns to the communal roost hungry. Luckier bats charmingly vomit up some of the blood they’ve harvested, to feed their hungry colleagues. Why do they bother?
4. Decision making

4. Decision making  

Jonathan St B. T. Evans

in Thinking and Reasoning: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2017
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191829321
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198787259.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198787259
4. Decision making that requires a decision. Similarly, if the route we drive to work requires us to turn left at a junction, we would not want to call that decision making. It happens automatically with practice. Turning right instead, for a particular purpose—to post an urgent letter perhaps—would require a decision. And as we all know, it is quite likely that we will forget and turn left anyway. In the language of dual-process theory, automatic Type 1 processes dominate most of our everyday choices. The psychology of decision making mostly involves novel choice problems that require Type 2,

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