4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’
As the backlash against multiculturalism has gathered pace, it has been replaced by ‘integration’ as the key theme of national and local policies towards ethnic minorities throughout Europe. In addition, especially in the UK, the ideas of ‘community cohesion’, ‘social cohesion’, and ‘citizenship’ have also been heavily trailed as the new way forward in managing the incorporation of ethnic minorities into the national polity. The British government now has communities ministers, a Commission for Integration and Cohesion, and new government departments. And throughout Western Europe, there has been a new emphasis on clarifying
1. What is multiculturalism?
Perhaps what is clearest in recent public debates about multiculturalism is that not much is clear when it comes to the key terms involved. An acceptable definition of multiculturalism has been notoriously elusive. In turn, proposed alternatives such as ‘integration’ have also remained vague. It is best, then, to begin with some brief historical and terminological preliminaries to which the discussion will return at various points in the book.
Cultural diversity and multiculturalism
‘Multiculturalism’ entered public discourses in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when both Australia and Canada began to declare their support for it.
In ordinary conversation and political debate, a great deal of talk about the welfare state focuses on its problems. Some of this can be set aside as the complaints of ideological opponents and free-market diehards, or countered by pointing to the success of welfare states in alleviating poverty, insecurity, and ill-health. But even their most fervent proponents acknowledge that welfare states can be problem-prone and open to criticism—particularly from working people outraged by stories of ‘welfare cheats’, ‘scroungers’, and the waste of taxpayer’s money. Of course many such stories are false and the public is often mistaken about
1. What is the welfare state?
is the welfare state? If you are reading this book, the chances are good that you live in a society with a highly developed welfare state and that you have, at various points in your life, come to depend on welfare state institutions. It is also quite likely that you have definite views about the welfare state—whether for or against—and that these views inform your voting behaviour, your political identity, and your attitude towards government. Those of us who live in developed societies are involved with welfare state institutions in all sorts of
Donald T. Critchlow
7. Affluence, depression, and world war, 1920–45
The quarter-century from 1920 to 1945 proved to be both critical and transformative for American government. Americans witnessed in these twenty-five years an economic boom in the 1920s, a global depression beginning in 1929 that led to the creation of the modern welfare state and the realignment of the two parties, and winning a terrible global war in the 1940s that threatened Western democracies.
A Very Short Introduction
Conclusion: Moving on: multiculturalism, interculturalism, and transnationalism in a new global era
Has multiculturalism failed?
It seems obvious that European nation states have decided that the period of multiculturalism is over. Multiculturalism seems now to be regarded by governments, intellectuals, and large sections of the national populations as either disastrous or at least a serious wrong turn in the response to immigration by non-white populations, usually from former colonies of the European powers in the period after 1945 at the end of the Second World War.
Is multiculturalism in terminal retreat or actually dead?
We Are All Multiculturalists Now :
Social well-being and democratic government
Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew
23. Edwardian Years: A Crisis of the State Contained