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6. Problems

6. Problems  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
6. Problems In ordinary conversation and political debate, a great deal of talk about the welfare state focuses on its problems. Some of this can be set aside as the complaints of ideological opponents and free-market diehards, or countered by pointing to the success of welfare states in alleviating poverty, insecurity, and ill-health. But even their most fervent proponents acknowledge that welfare states can be problem-prone and open to criticism—particularly from working people outraged by stories of ‘welfare cheats’, ‘scroungers’, and the waste of taxpayer’s money. Of course many such stories are false and the public is often mistaken about
1. What is multiculturalism?

1. What is multiculturalism?  

Ali Rattansi

in Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777288
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546039.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199546039
1. What is multiculturalism? Perhaps what is clearest in recent public debates about multiculturalism is that not much is clear when it comes to the key terms involved. An acceptable definition of multiculturalism has been notoriously elusive. In turn, proposed alternatives such as ‘integration’ have also remained vague. It is best, then, to begin with some brief historical and terminological preliminaries to which the discussion will return at various points in the book. Cultural diversity and multiculturalism ‘Multiculturalism’ entered public discourses in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when both Australia and Canada began to declare their support for it.
4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’

4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’  

Ali Rattansi

in Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777288
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546039.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199546039
4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’ As the backlash against multiculturalism has gathered pace, it has been replaced by ‘integration’ as the key theme of national and local policies towards ethnic minorities throughout Europe. In addition, especially in the UK, the ideas of ‘community cohesion’, ‘social cohesion’, and ‘citizenship’ have also been heavily trailed as the new way forward in managing the incorporation of ethnic minorities into the national polity. The British government now has communities ministers, a Commission for Integration and Cohesion, and new government departments. And throughout Western Europe, there has been a new emphasis on clarifying
1. What is the welfare state?

1. What is the welfare state?  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
1. What is the welfare state? is the welfare state? If you are reading this book, the chances are good that you live in a society with a highly developed welfare state and that you have, at various points in your life, come to depend on welfare state institutions. It is also quite likely that you have definite views about the welfare state—whether for or against—and that these views inform your voting behaviour, your political identity, and your attitude towards government. Those of us who live in developed societies are involved with welfare state institutions in all sorts of
Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction

Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction  

Ali Rattansi

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777288
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546039.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199546039
A Very Short Introduction
8. Social well-being and democratic government

8. Social well-being and democratic government  

Partha Dasgupta

in Economics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776328
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853455.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853455
8. Social well-being and democratic government
2. Before the welfare state

2. Before the welfare state  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
2. Before the welfare state Welfare states are distinctive sets of socio-economic arrangements and styles of governing that emerged in western nations at the end of the 19th century and were fully established in the middle decades of the 20th. But collective social provision in one form or another has been characteristic of societies throughout human history. Viewed in the long term, the welfare state is the latest chapter in an ongoing relationship between economic action and social provision.
4. The welfare state 1.0

4. The welfare state 1.0  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
4. The welfare state 1.0 The creation of full-fledged welfare states was part of the massive reconstruction undertaken by war-torn European nations in the years after 1945. And during the decades of growth that followed, a commitment to the welfare state became the settled principle around which a lasting political consensus took shape. In the USA, New Deal institutions formed the basis for a parallel settlement that likewise endured until the 1970s and beyond.
7. Neoliberalism and WS 2.0

7. Neoliberalism and WS 2.0  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
7. Neoliberalism and WS 2.0 discusses the socio-economic transformations and adaptive reforms that are currently unfolding.
7. Affluence, depression, and world war, 1920–45

7. Affluence, depression, and world war, 1920–45  

Donald T. Critchlow

in American Political History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2014
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780199393725
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340057.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340057
7. Affluence, depression, and world war, 1920–45 The quarter-century from 1920 to 1945 proved to be both critical and transformative for American government. Americans witnessed in these twenty-five years an economic boom in the 1920s, a global depression beginning in 1929 that led to the creation of the modern welfare state and the realignment of the two parties, and winning a terrible global war in the 1940s that threatened Western democracies.

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