Beyond institutional racism: ‘race’, class, and gender in the USA and Britain
- Ali Rattansi
The term institutional racism dates back to the late 1960s and refers to the process by which irrespective of individual attitudes, motivations, and behaviour with respect to racism, all whites benefited from social structures and organizational patterns which continually disadvantages blacks. The playing field in which blacks and whites competed for living standards was not level. ‘Beyond institutional racism: ‘race’, class, and gender in the USA and Britain’ analyses whether this description is still relevant today and charts the confusion that bedevils the idea of institutional racism. There is a tendency in descriptions of institutional racism to focus too exclusively on racism to the exclusion of other factors such as gender and class.