p. 816. Nineteenth-century Utah
- Richard Lyman Bushman
After Smith's death the movement split, the largest group being led by Brigham Young. Throughout the 19th century, Utah was the destination of more than 80,000 Mormons who migrated from the eastern United States and Europe, often driven by persecution. Brigham Young became an expert colonizer, setting up all the necessary institutions of civic life in a blend of church and state. Plural marriage reached its peak in the decade after its announcement in 1852, the main reason being religious, but it also integrated single immigrant women without other support into the society. Young 's plans foundered after the government required the church to dismantle the theocracy and polygamy.