Show Summary Details

p. 453. Forest originslocked

  • Jaboury Ghazoul


The origins of forests lie in the evolution of a key innovation some 400 million years ago (Mya): water-conducting canals stiffened with lignin that provided structural support allowing early small and prostrate plants to increase their size and stand erect. ‘Forest origins’ describes the evolutionary development of forests from the first forests dating back to the Devonian (385 Mya), through the widespread Carboniferous forest (359–299 Mya), the period of transition at the Permian–Triassic boundary (280–250 Mya), and the impact of the Quaternary Ice Ages, to our modern forests, which can be traced from the end of the last glacial period, some ten to twelve thousand years ago through the Holocene.

Access to the complete content on Very Short Introductions online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.