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p. 11. Early navigational cultureslocked

  • Jim Bennett


Distinct geographies, where areas of sea were demarcated not only by land, but also by climate and current, helped to create different cultures of navigation that for centuries followed individual trajectories. ‘Early navigational cultures’ explains that the sky was one thing that was shared by ancient navigational cultures. It describes the techniques used by seamen in the Mediterranean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, and North Atlantic to register direction and position—the two fundamental variables of navigation. Before the use of a magnetic compass, navigation was also possible using other techniques such as coastal navigation (or pilotage), and a good understanding of tides, currents, swells, and behaviour of seabirds.

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