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p. 142. Three centuries of freemasonrylocked

  • Andreas Önnerfors

Abstract

‘Three centuries of freemasonry’ explores each century of freemasonry history, highlighting key events and trends. It begins in the late 1710s when freemasonry emerged as a specialized form of voluntary and self-organized sociability within the associational world of urban London. Founded on previous traditions of medieval stonemasons, modern freemasonry evolved its spiritual message, rituals, and organizational forms to fit the new age of Enlightenment and scientific culture. After the French Revolution, freemasonry faced a serious crisis throughout Europe but was revived in France at the turn of the 19th century by Napoleon. The impact of the two world wars is described, and challenges facing freemasonry at the start of the 21st century.

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