What is learning? How does it take place? What happens when it goes wrong? The topic of learning has been central to the development of the science of psychology since its inception. Without learning there can be no memory, no language, and no intelligence. Learning: A Very Short Introduction describes learning from the perspective of associative theories of classical and instrumental conditioning, and considers why these are the dominant, and best described analyses of learning in contemporary psychology. Tracing the origins of these theories, it discusses the techniques used to study learning in both animals and humans, and considers the importance of learning for animal behaviour and survival.