Throughout the study of learning, psychologists have concerned themselves with two key questions. ‘What is learned during learning?’ considers the first. It introduces the content of learning during instrumental and classical conditioning. Actions performed during instrumental conditioning can be either goal directed or habitual, depending on how well advanced learning is. It also notes that classical conditioning is not as reflexive as one might first imagine from its description in popular culture. Classical conditioning, through the process of associative learning, serves to provide the organism with a way of predicting its future—both when the future is important, and when it is not.