“The Jewish matrix (1200 BCE–70 CE)” outlines the period from 1200 BCE to 70 CE, describing the importance of the Tanakh, which preserves and interprets the historical, cultural, and religious heritage of Israel and Judah. Ancient Israel’s discovery of the One God and the religion that developed around that awareness were deeply influenced by Israel’s political and cultural relationships with its neighbors. The texts that would constitute the Jewish sacred scriptures embed theological interpretations of this history. As the religion evolved, it was affected by Jews’ dispersion from their heartland, their engagement with Hellenism, and their implication in the eastern Mediterranean’s imperial conflicts. By the time of Jesus, Judaism had assumed multiple forms.