“Modern encounters (1500–2010)” considers what happened after 1500 as Christianity became the preeminent religion in many of the world’s most powerful nations. This new power facilitated its global spread. After 1500, Christianity became the preeminent religion in many of the world’s most powerful nations, facilitating its global spread. The recovery of political sovereignty by Muslims in Asia and Africa following decolonization in the twentieth century resulted in reassertions of Islam’s foundational importance for their political cultures. Meanwhile, world Jewry reorganized itself primarily in Israel and the United States, the latter being a state that officially promoted no religion while proclaiming itself to be culturally Christian yet also committed to protecting religious liberty. As disagreements between Jews, Christians, and Muslims continued, some sought to improve relationships among them by launching global theological initiatives.