Between 1400 and 1600 religious belief was integral to everyday life. It was impossible to separate religion from political authority, international finance, art, and learning. This culminated in a crisis for the Catholic Church which led to the Reformation. ‘Church and states’ examines what happened to the relationship between religion and the state during this time. The Renaissance saw a new development in relations between politics, religion, and learning. The rise of the nation state created the need for new intellectual and administrative skills to organize the new political structures and challenge the authority of church institutions. By 1600, Europe had changed beyond all recognition.