Nelson Mandela and the other Rivonia prisoners arrived on Robben Island for their indefinite imprisonment on 13 June 1964. ‘Growth of a national icon: later years’ looks at Mandela's time as a prisoner there, a time during which he engaged in a great deal of study, discussion, reading, and debate. Huge changes occurred in South Africa during that time. During the disruption in the 1980s, Mandela felt frustrated by his inability to contribute. He felt that insights gleaned over the previous decades could help in finding a solution. He became the ANC leader-in-the-wings and events culminated in February 1990 when de Klerk reversed apartheid and agreed to release Nelson Mandela from prison. The path to presidency was cleared.