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date: 28 November 2021

p. 344. The heart of the matterlocked

p. 344. The heart of the matterlocked

  • Frank Close


‘The heart of the matter’ elucidates the nature of quarks, electrons, neutrinos, and antimatter. Electrons exist in finite excitation states based on their energy levels. With enough energy, the electron leaves the atom, creating an ion. Quarks also exist in different energy states, but at high energy levels they emit light rather than escaping the nucleus. Quarks come in ‘up’ or ‘down’ flavours, combining in groups of three to form protons and neutrons. The flavour and spin of quarks determine the nature of the particle formed. Electrons also have a sister particle, the neutrino — the most abundant particle in the universe. All particles have corresponding, oppositely charged antiparticles.

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