In the period of early modernity, ideas of race were applied to concerns internal to Europe as well as with respect to encounters with non-Europeans. The notion of class was racialized. ‘Imperialism, eugenics, and the Holocaust’ shows how ideas of race began to exhibit a complexity that could not be defined as just white against non-white. The racial logic of colonialism continued to be embedded in an imperial culture in which the Otherness of the colonized was always ambivalent. What does the term eugenics mean? Where did it come from? This study of the Holocaust brings up a number of questions but importantly it asks what the implications of the Holocaust are for a wider understanding of racism.