‘The Civil Wars’ shows the country's gradual drift into the First Civil War. Parliament's victory came not through military factors — both sides professionalized their armies — but because it maintained the ability to pay the troops. Parliament's sweeping powers allowed it to make harsher impositions on the people, leading to discontent and loss of direction. With the war over, the army prevented negotiation between the king and parliament and secured its own interests. Provincial revolt triggered a second Civil War, at the close of which a revolutionary minority had the king beheaded.