‘The Neo-Babylonian Empire, 612–539 bce’ looks at the period that followed Assyrian rule, when the Neo-Babylonian kings took over. The Neo-Babylonian kingdom was short-lived, lasting just seventy-five years. However, Nebuchadnezzar II, its most prominent king, is one of the best known figures in ancient history. He was a builder and was responsible for impressive structures in Babylon and the restoration of many temples in the area. He is also known for his conquest of the land of Judah and the deportation of the Jewish people to Babylon. The Persian conquest ended this empire. Evidence for the ancient Near East gradually eroded away, only to be re-discovered much later.