Behaviour is a key way in which animals interact with their world: how animals find and choose mates, look after their young, find food, avoid becoming food for predators, and build nests and burrows. ‘How animals behave (and why)’ describes how the study of animals has changed through time and highlights some key figures in the development of the science, including Margaret Washburn, Charles H. Turner, Ivan Pavlov, and Richard Dawkins. It also considers Niko Tinbergen’s four questions for examining animal behaviour: What is it for? How did it develop during the lifetime of the individual? What mechanisms control the behaviour? How did it evolve over evolutionary time?