There is still much about Earth’s atmosphere we do not fully understand, which limits our ability to predict large-scale changes to the atmosphere. As Earth’s climate changes new scientific challenges will emerge that need to be addressed with new measurements and models. These challenges have implications for assessing the impact of future global economic growth and mitigating humanitarian risks. ‘Our future atmosphere’ outlines some of the future scientific, technical, and philosophical challenges we face. These include our responses to the changes in natural and anthropogenic-driven climate change, facing future unknown challenges, using improvements in technology to address the scientific challenges, and aiming for an international legally binding agreement on atmosphere policy.