Many New Public Management approaches failed to address deeper systemic issues underlying the actual causes of poor performance. As a result, a variety of alternative methods and approaches have been gaining popularity in public administration in recent years. ‘The new administrative age’ introduces reflective practice, which has been gaining a strong foothold in the areas of organizational management, and the characteristics of learning and effective organizations. It goes on to consider another emergent approach—the New Public Service—which emphasizes civic-oriented virtues over business principles. Creating ‘public value’ involves encouraging citizens to get more directly involved in establishing collective goals and then working with them to develop strategies for achieving them.