‘Emigration, immigration, and citizenship’ describes how modern Italy has been characterized by mass emigration. In 1861-1990 over twenty-eight million Italians left their country, mainly for economic reasons. In the 1970s, Italy became a country of immigration. In 1991-2015, the number of residents of non-Italian origin rose fivefold to just over five million. By then, immigration was considered a serious problem rather than having beneficial effects. Emigration and immigration have impacted on Italy’s approach to citizenship. Citizenship laws finally changed in 2015, but despite becoming an increasingly multi-ethnic country, Italy has found it difficult to acknowledge, represent, and give legal substance to this new reality.